CAPITAL : Kuala Lumpur
FLAG : The national flag consists of 14 alternating horizontal stripes, of which 7 are red and 7 white; a gold 14-pointed star and crescent appear on a blue field in the upper left corner.
ANTHEM : Negara Ku (My Country).
MONETARY UNIT : The Malaysian ringgit ( M $), or dollar, is divided into 100 sen, or cents. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 sens and 1 ringgit, and notes of 1, 5, 10, 20, 100, 500, and 1,000 ringgits. M $1 = US $0.2652 (or US $1 = M $3.77) as of May 2003.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system became the legal standard in 1982, but some British weights and measures and local units also are in use.
HOLIDAYS : National Day, 31 August; Christmas, 25 December. Movable holidays include Vesak Day, Birthday of His Majesty the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Hari Raya Puasa, Hari Raya Haji, the 1st of Muharram (Muslim New Year), Milad an-Nabi, Dewali, Thaipusam, and the Chinese New Year. Individual states celebrate the birthdays of their rulers and other holidays observed by native ethnic groups.
TIME : 7 PM = noon GMT.
Malaysia has no territories or colonies.
ABECOR. Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam . London: Barclays Bank, 1993.
Ahmad, Zakaria Haji (ed.). Government and Politics of Malaysia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
American University. Malaysia: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1985.
Bowie, Alasdair. Crossing the Industrial Divide: State, Society, and the Politics of Economic Transformation in Malaysia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1991.
Clutterbuck, Richard. Conflict and Violence in Singapore and Malaysia, 1945–1983 . Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1984.
Crouch, Harold A. Government and Society in Malaysia . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1996.
Dumargay, Jacques. Cultural Sites of Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Fisk, E. K., and H. Osman-Rani (eds.). The Political Economy of Malaysia. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Gomez, Edmund T. Malaysia's Political Economy: Politics, Patronage, and Profits. 2d ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Gunn, Geoffrey C. New World Hegemony in the Malay World. Trenton, N.J.: Red Sea Press, 2000.
Jaaffar, Johan. History of Modern Malay Literature. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Desan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Ministry of Education Malaysia, 1992.
Kaur, Amarjit. Historical Dictionary of Malaysia. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2001.
Kaur, Amarjit and Ian Metcalfe (eds.) The Shaping of Malaysia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
Leete, Richard. Malaysia's Demographic Transition: Rapid Development, Culture, and Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Lucas, Robert E. B. Restructuring the Malaysian Economy Development and Human Resources. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
McNair, Sylvia. Malaysia. New York: Children's Press, 2002.
Malaysian Eclipse: Economic Crisis and Recovery . New York: Zed, 2001.
Mohamed, Ariff. The Malaysian Economy: Pacific Connections. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Munro-Kua, Anne. Authoritarian Populism in Malaysia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
Nonini, Donald Macon. British Colonial Rule and the Resistance of the Malay Peasantry, 1900–1957. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1992.
Ongkill, James. Nation Building in Malaysia, 1946 to 1974 . New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Peletz, Michael G. Reason and Passion: Representation of Gender in a Malay Society. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
Runciman, Steven. The White Rajahs: A History of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: S. Abdul Majed and Co., 1992.
Saw, Swee-Hock. The Population of Peninsular Malaysia. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988.
Spruit, Ruud. The Land of the Sultans: An Illustrated History of Malaysia. Amsterdam: Pepin Press, 1995.
Stubbs, Richard. Hearts and Minds in Guerrilla Warfare: The Malayan Emergency, 1948–1960. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
U.S. Department of Commerce. Survey of Current Business (August 1991): Vol. 71, No. 8.