Islam is the official religion. The head of state, the yang dipertuan agong, is also the national leader of the Islamic faith. The constitution, however, guarantees freedom to profess, practice, and propagate other religions. Religious lines generally follow ethnic lines. Almost all Malays are Muslims; most Indians are Hindus, with a substantial minority of Muslims, Sikhs, and Parsees; and most Chinese are Confucian-Buddhists, with a minority Muslim representation. Christianity has won some adherents among the Chinese and Indians. The indigenous peoples of Sabah and Sarawak are still largely animist, although many have become Christian. Shamanism is also practiced on East Malaysia.
According to a 2000 government census, about 60% of the population are Muslim, 19% Buddhist, 9% Christian, and 6% Hindu. About 3% practice Confucianism, Taoism, or other traditional Chinese religions. Other faiths include animism, Sikhism, and the Baha'i Faith.