CAPITAL : Paris
FLAG : The national flag is a tricolor of blue, white, and red vertical stripes.
ANTHEM : La Marseillaise.
MONETARY UNIT : The euro replaced the franc as the official currency in 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of May 2003, €1 = $1.0977 (or $1 = €0.911).
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.
HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Labor Day, 1 May; World War II Armistice Day, 8 May; Bastille Day, 14 July; Assumption, 15 August; All Saints' Day, 1 November; World War I Armistice Day, 11 November; Christmas, 25 December. Movable holidays include Easter Monday, Ascension, and Pentecost Monday.
TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.
About 94% of the population holds French citizenship. Most of these citizens are of French ancestry, but there are also small groups of Flemings, Catalans, Germans, Armenians, Gypsies, Russians, Poles, and others. The largest resident alien groups are Algerians, Portuguese, Moroccans, Italians, Spaniards, Tunisians, and Turks.
Agulhon, Maurice. The French Republic, 1879–1992. Oxford, UK; Cambridge, Mass.: B. Blackwell, 1993.
Aplin, Richard. A Dictionary of Contemporary France. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1993.
Ardagh, John. Cultural Atlas of France. New York, NY: Facts on File, 1991.
Cook, Malcolm (ed.). French Culture Since 1945. New York: Longman, 1993.
Corbett, James. Through French Windows: an Introduction to France in the Nineties. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 1994.
France. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1996.
France: From the Cold War to the New World Order. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
Frears, J. R. Parties and Voters in France. London: Hurst, 1991.
Gildea, Robert. France Since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
——. The Past in French History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.
Gough, Hugh and John Horne. De Gaulle and Twentieth-century France. New York: Edward Arnold, 1994.
Graham, Bruce Desmond. Choice and Democratic Order: the French Socialist Party, 1937–1950. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Hewitt, Nicholas (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Modern French Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Heywood, Colin. The Development of the French Economy, 1750–1914 the Economic History Society. Houndmills, Eng.: Macmillan, 1992.
Hollifield, James F. and George Ross (eds.). Searching for the New France. New York: Routledge, 1991.
Illustrated Guide to France. New York: W.W. Norton, 2003.
International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Jones, Colin. The Cambridge Illustrated History of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Kelly, Michael (ed.). French Culture and society: The Essentials. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Noiriel, Gérard. The French Melting Pot: Immigration, Citizenship, and National Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Northcutt, Wayne. Mitterrand: A Political Biography. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1992.
——. The Regions of France: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Planhol, Xavier de. An Historical Geography of France. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Raymond, Gino. Historical Dictionary of France. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 1998.
The Rise and Fall of the French Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Stevens, Anne. The Government and Politics of France. Houndmills: Macmillan, 1996.
Tombs, Robert. France, 1814–1914. London: Longman, 1996.
Vinen, Richard. France, 1934–1970. Houndmills, England: Macmillan, 1996.
——. The Politics of French Business, 1936–1945. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Weber, Eugen Joseph. My France: Politics, Culture, Myth. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1991.
Winchester, Hilary P. M. Contemporary France. New York: J. Wiley and Sons, 1993.
Young, Robert J. France and the Origins of the Second World War. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996.