Republic of Finland
CAPITAL : Helsinki
FLAG : The civil flag contains an ultramarine cross with an extended right horizontal on a white background.
ANTHEM : Maammelaulu (in Swedish, Vårt land; Our Land).
MONETARY UNIT : The euro replaced the markkaa as the official currency in 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of May 2003, €1 = $1.0977 (or $1 = €0.911).
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.
HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; May Day, 1 May; Independence Day, 6 December; Christmas, 25–26 December. Movable holidays include Good Friday, Easter Monday, Whitsun, and Midsummer Day (late June). Epiphany, Ascension, and All Saints' Day are adjusted to fall always on Saturdays.
TIME : 2 PM = noon GMT.
At the beginning of 1996, the Finnish fishing fleet consisted of 3,798 vessels with 22,509 GRT. The total catch in 2000 was 162,906 tons and exports of fishery commodities totaled $17 million. The most important catch is Atlantic herring, with 23,149 tons caught in 2000. Other important species are rainbow trout, perch, pike, salmon, and cod.
Finland possesses no territories or colonies.
Bako, Elemer. Finland and the Finns: A Selective Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1993.
Dun and Bradstreet's Export Guide to Finland. Parsippany, N.J.: Dun and Bradstreet, 1999.
Gendered Practices in Working Life. London: Macmillan, 1997.
International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Jussila, Osmo. From Grand Duchy to Modern State: A Political History of Finland since 1809. London, Eng.: Hurst, 1999.
Maude, George. Historical Dictionary of Finland. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 1995.
Nordstrom, Byron J. Scandinavia since 1500. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.
Rinehart, Robert (ed.). Finland and the United States: Diplomatic Relations Through Seventy Years. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University, 1993.
Salminen, Esko. The Silenced Media: The Propaganda War between Russia and the West in Northern Europe. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
Schoolfield, George C. Helsinki of the Czars: Finland's Capital, 1808–1918. Columbia, S.C.: Camden House, 1996.
Siikala, Anna-Leena (ed.) Myth and Mentality: Studies in Folklore and Popular Thought. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2002.
Solsten, Eric and Sandra W. Meditz (eds.) Finland, a Country Study. 2d ed. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1990.
Tillotson, H. M. Finland at Peace and War. Rev. ed. Wilby, Norwich, U.K.: Michael Russell, 1996.
Tyyska, Vappu. The Politics of Caring and the Welfare State: The Impact of the Women's Movement on Child Care Policy in Canada and Finland, 1960–1990. Helsinki: Supmalainen Tiedeakatemia, 1995.