Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Yeltyop'iya Federalawi

CAPITAL : Addis Ababa

FLAG : The national flag is a tricolor of green, yellow, and red horizontal stripes with a blue disk and a yellow outlined star and rays in the center.

ANTHEM : Traditional "Ityopia, Ityopia" is in use at the present time. A new anthem will be designated in the near future.

MONETARY UNIT : The birr ( B ) is a paper currency of 100 cents. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cents, and notes of 1, 5, 10, 50, and 100 birr. B 1 = $0.1164 (or $1 = B 8.59) as of March 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is used, but some local weights and measures also are employed.

HOLIDAYS : Holidays generally follow the Old Style Coptic Church calendar. National holidays include Christmas, 7 January; Epiphany, 19 January; Victory of Adwa (1896), 2 March; Victory Day, 6 April; May Day, 1 May; New Year's Day, 11 September; Feast of the Holy Cross, 27 September. Movable Muslim holidays include 'Id al-Fitr and 'Id al-'Adha'.

TIME : 3 PM = noon GMT.


With the secession of Eritrea, Ethiopia lost access to an estimated 1,011 km (628 mi) of Red Sea coastline. In 1992, the Ethiopian and provisional Eritrean governments agreed to make Assab a free port for Ethiopia. Most Ethiopians do not eat seafood; hunting and fishing accounts for only a tiny fraction of the GDP. The catch was 10,414 tons in 1997, up from 5,318 tons in 1994.


In January 1976, the 13 insurance companies operating in Ethiopia were nationalized and fused into an inclusive national insurance organization, the Ethiopian Insurance Corp. In 1994, the insurance industry was deregulated. Seven private insurance companies opened between 1994 and 1997: United, Africa, Nile, Nyala, Awash, National, and Global.


Many business and personal income tax rates from the former government were still in effect in 1993, ranging from 10% of monthly incomes to 85%. A 40% income tax was levied on royalties, and a 2% ad valorem turnover tax on domestic sales. On 1 January 2003, Ethiopia replaced its sales tax with a value-added tax (VAT) set at a standard rate of 12%. Exempt from the VAT were food and pharmaceuticals.


Ethiopia has no territories or colonies.


Araia, Ghelawdewos. Ethiopia: The Political Economy of Transition. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1995.

Clapp, Nicholas. Sheba: Through the Desert in Search of the Legendary Queen. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Crummey, Donald. Land and Society in the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: From the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

Ethiopia: Accelerating Industrial Growth through Market Reforms. New York: United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 1996.

G.aitachew Bekele. The Emperor's Clothes: A Personal Viewpoint on Politics and Administration in the Imperial Ethiopian Government, 1941–1974. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1993.

Grierson, Roderick. Red Sea, Blue Nile: The Civilisation of Ancient and Medieval Ethiopia. London, Eng.: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2002.

Griffin, Keith (ed.). The Economy of Ethiopia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Henze, Paul B. Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.

Kebbede, Girma. The State and Development in Ethiopia. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities Press, 1992.

Marcus, Harold G. A History of Ethiopia. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1994.

McCann, James. People of the Plow: An Agricultural History of Ethiopia, 1800–1990. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995.

McPherson, E. S. P. Ethiopian Sovereignty and African Nationhood: Voice from the Ethio-Diaspora Call. Brooklyn, N.Y.: AandB Publishers, 2000.

Morell, Virginia. Blue Nile: Ethiopia's River of Magic and Mystery. Washington, D.C.: Adventure Press, 2001.

Ofcansky, Thomas P. and LaVerle Berry (eds.). Ethiopia, a Country Study. 4th ed. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1993.

Prouty, Chris. Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2d ed. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1993.

——. Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Boulder, Colo.: net Library, 2000.

Silence is not Golden: A Critical Anthology of Ethiopian Literature. Lawrenceville, N.J.: Red Sea Press, 1995.

Sorenson, John. Imagining Ethiopia: Struggles for History and Identity in the Horn of Africa. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1993.

Tiruneh, Andargachew. The Ethiopian Revolution, 1974–1987: A Transformation from an Aristocratic to a Totalitarian Autocracy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Webb, Patrick. Famine and Food Security in Ethiopia: Lessons for Africa. New York: John Wiley, 1994.

Also read article about Ethiopia from Wikipedia

User Contributions:

I want to know the tax reform taken and the impacts of this reform in Ethiopian taxation.further more , I want to have a know how regarding the problems related with taxation.

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: