Other than modest government allocations for pensions, labor and social welfare for public employees, Ethiopia has no comprehensive public welfare or social security programs. Retirement is set at age 55 for public employees. Retired employees receive 30% of their average monthly salary during the last three years of employment. Most of the population depends on subsistence agriculture in deprived rural areas and therefore falls outside the scope of this limited retirement system.
Women have traditionally been restricted to subordinate roles in society. In rural areas, women are burdened with most of the strenuous agricultural and domestic work, while in urban areas, women are limited in their job opportunities. The civil code discriminates against women in family law and property issues. Domestic abuse is pervasive; societal norms inhibit most women from seeking intervention from the authorities. Young women are still abducted for the purpose of marriage. The majority of girls are subject to female genital mutilation.
Human rights abuses persist, including arbitrary arrests, lengthy pretrial detention, and mistreatment of prisoners. However, the government encourages international human rights groups to send observers.