Republic of Ecuador
República del Ecuador


FLAG : The flag consists of three horizontal stripes, the yellow uppermost stripe being equal to the combined widths of the blue center stripe and the red lower stripe.

ANTHEM : Salve, O Patria (Hail, O Fatherland).

MONETARY UNIT : The sucre has been replaced by the U.S. dollar as the official currency as of March 2000 at a rate of 25,000 sucres for 1 U.S. dollar. The dollar ($) of 100 cents is a paper currency with a floating rate. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 cents and 1 dollar, and notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 dollars. Although issuance of higher notes ceased in 1969, a limited number of notes of 500, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 dollars remain in circulation.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard, but local and old Spanish units also are used.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Labor Day, 1 May; Battle of Pichincha, 24 May; Simón Bolívar's Birthday, 24 July; Quito's Independence Day, 10 August; Guayaquil's Independence Day, 9 October; Columbus Day, 12 October; All Saints' Day, 1 November; All Souls' Day, 2 November; Cuenca's Independence Day, 3 November; Foundation of Quito, 6 December; Christmas Day, 25 December. Movable holidays include Carnival and Holy Week.

TIME : Mainland, 7 AM = noon GMT; Galápagos Islands, 6 AM = noon GMT.


In 2002 the active armed forces of Ecuador numbered 59,500 and were backed up by 100,000 reserves. The army numbered 50,00 operating in four defense zones. The navy consisted of 5,500 personnel including 1,700 marines. The air force had 4,000 members commanding 79 combat aircraft. There were also 270 coast guards. In 1998, Ecuador spent $720 million on defense, or3.4% of GNP.


Ecuador is a charter member of the UN, having joined on 21 October 1945. It belongs to CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO and WTrO. Ecuador received full membership in OPEC in 1973.


Darwin, Charles. Voyage of the Beagle. Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1962 (orig. 1840).

Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The Political Feasibility of Adjustment in Ecuador and Venezuela. Paris: Development Centre of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1994.

Ecuador in Pictures. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 1998.

Garretón, Manuel Antonio, and Edward Newman, eds. Democracy in Latin America: (Re) constructing Political Society. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.

Gerlach, Allen. Indians, Oil, and Politics: A Recent History of Ecuador. Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, 2003.

Handelsman, Michael H. Culture and Customs of Ecuador. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Hanratty, Dennis M. (ed.). Ecuador, a Country Study, 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1991.

Health in the Americas, 2002 edition. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 2002.

Herz, Monica. Ecuador vs. Peru: Peace making amid Rivalry. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2002.

Hidrobo Estrada, Jorge. Power and Industrialization in Ecuador. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1992.

Indigenous Peoples and Democracy in Latin America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Isaacs, Anita. Military Rule and Transition in Ecuador, 1972–92. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1993.

Newson, Linda A. Life and Death in Early Colonial Ecuador. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995.

Pineo, Ronn F. Social and Economic Reform in Ecuador: Life and Work in Guayaquil. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1996.

Radcliffe, Sarah A. Remaking the Nation: Place, Identity and Politics in Latin America. London: Routledge, 1996.

Also read article about Ecuador from Wikipedia

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May 20, 2006 @ 8:08 am
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Mar 13, 2007 @ 3:15 pm
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