The population of Ecuador in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 13,003,000, which placed it as number 65 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 37% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 101 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.49%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 15,155,000. The population density in 2002 was 46 per sq km (119 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 65% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001, up from 47% in 1980. The capital city, Quito, had a population of 1,679,000 in that year. Guayaquil, the major port, had 2,127,000 metropolitan inhabitants. Other large cities were Cuenca (194,981), Machala (144,197), and Portoviejo (132,937). According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was 3.0%.