Republic of Mozambique
República Popular de Moçambique
CAPITAL : Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques)
FLAG : The flag consists of broad stripes of green, black, and yellow, separated by narrow bands of white. Extending from the hoist is a red triangle; centered on the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star upon which is a white book over which are crossed the black silhouettes of a hoe and an AK 47 rifle.
ANTHEM : Begins "Viva viva FRELIMO."
MONETARY UNIT : The Mozambique escudo ( ME ), linked until 1977 with the Portuguese escudo, was in June 1980 renamed the metical ( MT ); it is a paper currency of 100 centavos. There are coins of 1 / 2 , 1, 2 1 / 2 , 5, 10, and 20 meticais, and notes of 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 meticais. MT 1=$0.000043 (or $1= MT 23,220) as of April 2003).
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is in use.
HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Heroes' Day, 3 February; Women's Day, 7 April; Workers' Day, 1 May; Independence Day, 25 June; Victory Day, 7 September; Day of Revolution, 25 September; Christmas, 25 December.
TIME : 2 PM = noon GMT.
Portuguese remains the official language. Different African ethnic groups speak their respective languages and dialects.
The armed forces in 2002 numbered an estimated 10,000–11,500. The army was equipped with about 80 main battle tanks. The navy had 150 personnel, and the air force numbered 1,000. Mozambique had observers in two UN missions in the region. Military expenditures in 2000 were an estimated $35.1 million or 1% of GDP.
In 1977, all insurance companies were nationalized and Empresa Moçambicana de Seguros was established as the sole state insurance enterprise. This company continued functioning through 1999.
Both import and export licenses are required for all goods. The average nominal customs tariff rate was reduced from 18% to 10% in 1996. Mozambique chaired the Southern African Development Community (SADC) from 1990–2000, and houses its Communications Commission (SATCC) in Maputo.
FRELIMO has emphasized mass organizations, such as the Organization of Mozambican Women and the Organization of Mozambican Youth. Scouting programs and active chapters of the YMCA/YWCA are available for youth. The Red Cross is active in the country.
The Mozambique Chamber of Commerce, founded in 1980, is located in Maputo. There is a national teacher's union.
Eduardo C. Mondlane (1920–69) was the first president of FRELIMO. His successor, and later the first president of independent Mozambique, was Samora Moïsés Machel (1933–86). Joaquim Alberto Chissano (b.1939), foreign minister since independence, succeeded Machel as president in 1986; Chissano announced in 2003 that he did not intend to run for reelection in 2004.
Mozambique has no territories or colonies.
Abrahamsson, Hans. Mozambique: The Troubled Transition, from Socialist Construction to Free Market Capitalism . London: Zed Books, 1995.
Andersson, Hilary. Mozambique: A War Against the People. New York: St. Martin's, 1992.
Azevedo, Mario Joaquim. Historical Dictionary of Mozambique. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1991.
——. Historical Dictionary of Mozambique. [computer file]Boulder, Colo.: net Library, Inc., 2000.
Chingono, Mark F. The State, Violence and Development: The Political Economy of War in Mozambique, 1975–1992 . Aldershot, England: Avebury, 1996.
Christie, Iain. Samora Machel, a Biography. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Panaf, 1989.
Ciment, James. Angola and Mozambique: Postcolonial Wars in Southern Africa. New York: Facts on File, 1997.
Else, David. Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia. Oakland, Calif.Lonely Planet, 1997.
Hall, Margaret. Confronting Leviathan: Mozambique Since Independence. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1997.
Harmon, Daniel E. Southeast Africa: 1880 to the Present: Reclaiming a Region of Natural Wealth. Philadelphia, Penn.: Chelsea House Publishers, 2002.
Landau, Luis. Rebuilding the Mozambique Economy: Assessment of a Development Partnership. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1998.
Lord, Graham. Ghosts of King Solomon's Mines: Mozambique and Zimbabwe: a Quest. London: Sinclair-Stevenson, 1991.
Marshall, Judith. Literacy, Power and Democracy in Mozambique: The Governance of Learning from Colonization to the Present. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993.
McElrath, Karen (ed.). HIV and AIDS: A Global View. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Newitt, M. D. D. A History of Mozambique . Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
Rotberg, Robert I. Ending Autocracy, Enabling Democracy: The Tribulations of Southern Africa, 1960–2000. Cambridge, Mass.: World Peace Foundation, 2002.
Vines, Alex. Angola and Mozambique: The Aftermath of Conflict . London: Research Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1995.
——. Renamo: From Terrorism to Democracy in Mozambique . York: Centre for Southern African Studies, University of York, 1996.
Waterhouse, Rachel. Mozambique: Rising from the Ashes . Oxford: Oxfam, 1996.