Republic of Mozambique
República Popular de Moçambique
CAPITAL : Maputo (formerly Lourenço Marques)
FLAG : The flag consists of broad stripes of green, black, and yellow, separated by narrow bands of white. Extending from the hoist is a red triangle; centered on the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star upon which is a white book over which are crossed the black silhouettes of a hoe and an AK 47 rifle.
ANTHEM : Begins "Viva viva FRELIMO."
MONETARY UNIT : The Mozambique escudo ( ME ), linked until 1977 with the Portuguese escudo, was in June 1980 renamed the metical ( MT ); it is a paper currency of 100 centavos. There are coins of 1 / 2 , 1, 2 1 / 2 , 5, 10, and 20 meticais, and notes of 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 meticais. MT 1=$0.000043 (or $1= MT 23,220) as of April 2003).
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is in use.
HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Heroes' Day, 3 February; Women's Day, 7 April; Workers' Day, 1 May; Independence Day, 25 June; Victory Day, 7 September; Day of Revolution, 25 September; Christmas, 25 December.
TIME : 2 PM = noon GMT.
Portuguese remains the official language. Different African ethnic groups speak their respective languages and dialects.
The armed forces in 2002 numbered an estimated 10,000–11,500. The army was equipped with about 80 main battle tanks. The navy had 150 personnel, and the air force numbered 1,000. Mozambique had observers in two UN missions in the region. Military expenditures in 2000 were an estimated $35.1 million or 1% of GDP.
In 1977, all insurance companies were nationalized and Empresa Moçambicana de Seguros was established as the sole state insurance enterprise. This company continued functioning through 1999.
Both import and export licenses are required for all goods. The average nominal customs tariff rate was reduced from 18% to 10% in 1996. Mozambique chaired the Southern African Development Community (SADC) from 1990–2000, and houses its Communications Commission (SATCC) in Maputo.
FRELIMO has emphasized mass organizations, such as the Organization of Mozambican Women and the Organization of Mozambican Youth. Scouting programs and active chapters of the YMCA/YWCA are available for youth. The Red Cross is active in the country.
The Mozambique Chamber of Commerce, founded in 1980, is located in Maputo. There is a national teacher's union.
Eduardo C. Mondlane (1920–69) was the first president of FRELIMO. His successor, and later the first president of independent Mozambique, was Samora Moïsés Machel (1933–86). Joaquim Alberto Chissano (b.1939), foreign minister since independence, succeeded Machel as president in 1986; Chissano announced in 2003 that he did not intend to run for reelection in 2004.
Mozambique has no territories or colonies.
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