Mozambique's rich mineral deposits remained largely undeveloped. With the end of the civil war, efforts have been under way to revive the economy, with the minerals sector playing an important role. In 1999, mining accounted for less than 1% of GDP. Among leading industries in 2002 were the production of fertilizer, petroleum products, cement, glass, and asbestos. Zambézia, Nampula, and Tete provinces had large deposits of columbite, tantalite, beryl, semiprecious stones, feldspar, kaolin, and coal. Manica Province produced copper and bauxite. Also known to occur were deposits of diatomite, fluorspar, guano, gypsum, iron ore, limestone, manganese, mica, nepheline syenite, perlite, phosphate rock (resources of 274 million tons), rare earths, silica sand, precious and ornamental stones (agate, amethyst, aquamarine, emerald, garnet, jasper, morganite, rose quartz, tigereye, and tourmaline), and titanium. Resources of heavy-mineral sands totaled 14 billion tons containing 300 million tons of ilmenite, as well as zircon and rutile.
Production of bauxite was 8,130 tons in 2000, down from 11,459 in 1996; crude bentonite, 16,144 tons; marble, 120,000 tons of block, down from 744,000 in 1996, and 2,800 sq m of slab, down from 18,232 in 1996 (resources totaled 83 million tons); and semiprecious stones of all types, 3,400 carats of cut stone, down from 5,303 in 1998, and 1,000 kg of rough stones, down from 1,862 in 1996. Also produced in 2000 were clays other than bentonite, gold (most of which was artisanal and undocumented), limestone, crushed rock, marine salt, sand and gravel, and stone. Mozambique's only graphite mine closed in 1999, because of a tax dispute. A significant amount of gold and gemstones was smuggled out of the country each year—4,000– 5,000 kg of gold, valued at $50–$62 million, and $50 million worth of gemstones. GDP grew by 3.8% in 2000, 7.3% in 1999, and 11.9% in 1998. The value of output in the mining sector contracted by 4.1% in 2000 and 33.7% in 1999, after growing by 15.1% in 1998 and 19.9% in 1997. The value of exported minerals was $3.6 million in 1999, down from $6 million in 1995. The International Monetary Fund predicted the mining sector would grow by 10% in 2001 and by 15% per year from 2002 to 2005.