CAPITAL : Athens (Athínai)
FLAG : The national flag consists of nine equal horizontal stripes of royal blue alternating with white and a white cross on a royal-blue square canton.
ANTHEM : Ethnikos Hymnos (National Hymn), beginning "Se gnorizo apo tin kopsi" ("I recognize you by the keenness of your sword").
MONETARY UNIT : The euro replaced the drachma as official currency in 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of May 2003, €1 = $1.0977 (or $1 = €0.911).
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.
HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Independence Day, 25 March; Labor Day, 1 May; Assumption, 15 August; National Day (anniversary of successful resistance to Italian attack in 1940), 28 October; Christmas, 25 December; Boxing Day, 26 December. Movable religious holidays include Shrove Monday, Good Friday, and Easter Monday.
TIME : 2 PM = noon GMT.
About 98% of the population is Greek. Minority groups include Turks, Macedonian Slavs, Albanians, Armenians, Bulgarians, Jews, and Vlachs. Although the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne provided for an exchange of most Greek nationals in Turkey and Turkish nationals in Greece, the Turks of western Thrace (now numbering perhaps 100,000) were allowed to stay.
Greece has no territories or colonies.
Brown, John Pairman. Ancient Israel and Ancient Greece: Religion, Politics, and Culture. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.
Bryant, Joseph M. Moral Codes and Social Structure in Ancient Greece: A Sociology of Greek Ethics from Homer to the Epicureans and Stoics. Albany, N. Y.: State University of New York Press, 1996.
Camp, John M. The world of the Ancient Greeks. London: Thames and Hudson, 2002.
Clogg, Richard (ed.). Greece, 1981–89: The Populist Decade. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993.
Constas, Dimitris (ed.). The Greek-Turkish Conflict in the 1990s. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Frazier, Robert. Anglo-American Relations with Greece: The Coming of the Cold War, 1942–47. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Hazel, John. Who's Who in the Greek World. New York: Routledge, 2000.
International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Jouganatos, George A. The Development of the Greek Economy, 1950–1991. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Laisné, Claude. Art of Ancient Greece: Sculpture, Painting, Architecture. Paris: Terrail, 1995.
Lawrence, A. W. Greek Architecture. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996.
Legg, Kenneth R. Modern Greece: A Civilization on the Periphery. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1997.
Pettifer, James. The Greeks: The Land and People Since the War. London, England; New York: Viking, 1993.
Sheehan, Sean. Illustrated Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece. Los Angeles, Calif.: The J. Paul Getty Museum, 2002.
Speake, Graham (ed.) Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000.
Woodhouse, C. M. Modern Greece: A Short History. 5th ed., revised. London: Faber and Faber, 1991.