POLAND





Republic of Poland

Rzeczpospolita Polska

CAPITAL : Warsaw (Warszawa)

FLAG : The national flag consists of two horizontal stripes, the upper white and the lower red.

ANTHEM : Jeszcze Polska nie zginela (Poland Is Not Yet Lost ).

MONETARY UNIT : The zloty ( Z ) is a paper currency of 100 groszy. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 groszy and 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 zlotys, and notes of 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 5,000 zlotys. A currency reform on 1 January 1995 replaced 10,000 old zlotys with 1 new zloty. Z 1 = $0.2638 (or $1 = Z 3.79) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Labor Day, 1 May; National Day, 3 May; Victory Day, 9 May; All Saints' Day, 1 November; Christmas, 25–26 December. Movable holidays are Easter Monday and Corpus Christi.

TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.


FLORA AND FAUNA

Coniferous trees, especially pine, account for 70% of the forests; deciduous species include birch, beech, and elm. Lynx, wildcat, European bison, moose, wild horse (tarpan), and wild goat are among the few remaining large mammals. Birds, fish, and insects are plentiful.

FISHING

Most of the fishing industry has been brought under state ownership. Sea fishing is conducted in the Baltic and North seas and in the Atlantic (Labrador, Newfoundland, and African waters), and there are inland fisheries in lakes, ponds, and rivers. The 2000 saltwater catch was 200,811 tons, predominantly pollock; freshwater fishing yielded about 17,543 tons. Exports of fish products amounted to $242.7 million in 2000.

DEPENDENCIES

Poland has no territories or colonies.

Read about the Culture of Poland. More about Poland's Culture.

Read about the Geography of Poland.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bernhard, Michael H. The Origins of Democratization in Poland: Workers, Intellectuals, and Oppositional Politics, 1976–1980. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Blazyca, George and Ryszard Rapacki (eds.). Poland into the 1990s: Economy and Society in Transition. New York: St. Martin's, 1991.

Engel, David. Facing a Holocaust: The Polish Government-in-exile and the Jews, 1943–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Fallenbuchl, Zbigniew M. The Polish Economy in the Year 2000: Need and Outlook for Systematic Reforms, Recovery and Growth Strategy. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Center for Russian and East European Studies, 1988.

Goodwyn, Lawrence. Breaking the Barrier: the Rise of Solidarity in Poland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Hicks, Barbara E. Environmental Politics in Poland: A Social Movement between Regime and Opposition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.

Hoshi, Iraj, Ewa Balcerowicz, Leszek Balcerowicz, edc. Barriers to Entry and Growth of New Firms in Early Transition: A Comparative Study of Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Albania, and Lithuania. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

Kaminski, Bartoomiej. The Collapse of State Socialism: The Case of Poland. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Kennedy, Michael D. Professionals, Power, and Solidarity in Poland: A Critical Sociology of Soviet-type Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Kurczewski, Jacek. The Resurrection of Rights in Poland. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

McElrath, Karen (ed.). HIV and AIDS: A Global View. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Ost, David. Solidarity and the Politics of Anti-politics: Opposition and Reform in Poland since 1968. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Rachwald, Arthur R. In Search of Poland: The Superpowers' Response to Solidarity, 1980–1989. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 1990.

The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914–23. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Reuvid, Jonathan, and Marat Terterov, eds. Doing Business with Poland. Sterling, Va.: Kogan Page, 2003.

Sanford, George. Historical Dictionary of Poland. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1994.

——. Poland. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1993.

Shen, Raphael. Economic Reform in Poland and Czechoslovakia: Lessons in Systemic Transformation. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993.

Simatupang, Batara. The Polish Economic Crisis: Background, Causes and Aftermath. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Staar, Richard F. (ed.). Transition to Democracy in Poland. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.

Steinlauf, Michael. Bondage to the Dead: Poland and the Memory of the Holocaust. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997.

Tworzecki, Hubert. Parties and Politics in Post-1989 Poland. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

Walesa, Lech. The Struggle and the Triumph: An Autobiography. New York: Arcade, 1992.

Wedel, Janine R. (ed.). The Unplanned Society: Poland During and After Communism. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

Women in Polish Society. Edited by Rudolf Jaworski and Bianka Pietrow. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs, 1992.

World Bank. Understanding Poverty in Poland. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1995.

User Contributions:

Susie Q
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Nov 16, 2006 @ 9:21 pm
I am doing a report on Poland!!!! Go PolanD!!!
Susie Q
Steven
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Jan 22, 2007 @ 9:21 pm
Poland ROCKS go poland im doing a report on poland and im learing soo much on poland i love poland. it happens to be that im 25% polish too. poland rocks
Mariola
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Jan 25, 2008 @ 4:16 pm
I'm 100% Polish and doing a report on my homeland country of Poland for my classroom. Go Poland!! Poland Rocks. We're going to visit this summer and I can't wait to see family that I haven't seen in a few years. I speak 100% Polish and English too.
Suzi
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Apr 21, 2008 @ 11:23 pm
This site ROCKS!! Poland seems to be recovering from Communism quite well...I'm doing a 10-page research paper on Poland with a focus on globalization and this site has proved to be very helpful. Whoever the author is, thank you! I have some Polish in me, my last name is Polish, but not much.
Glenvicia
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Feb 2, 2009 @ 7:07 am
Poland is such a beautiful country, its mountains' sight is so magnificent and everything about it is so great, relaxed, beautiful. All of you who are in Poland are so lucky.
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Feb 25, 2010 @ 6:18 pm
You guys are life savers! You helped me a ton on my country report! I think this website is the most educational ever. Keep up with this website!
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Mar 24, 2010 @ 10:10 am
poland rocks the house in the country of europe i am a 13 year old kid at school
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Oct 5, 2011 @ 7:07 am
i think that poland is a awsome country i love it bro !

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