Pastures cover about 5% of the total land area, according to Poland's 1995 agricultural census. The government has encouraged the development of livestock production through increased fodder supply and improvement in breeding stock and partial tax relief for hog raising. Emphasis has been placed on the raising of hogs and sheep. In 2001, there were 17.1 million pigs, 5,734,000 head of cattle, and 343,000 sheep. In 2001 there were an estimated 48.2 million chickens, 3.5 million ducks, and 802,000 turkeys.
Estimated livestock production in 2001 included (in thousands of tons): pork, 1,849; beef and veal, 316; poultry, 741; mutton, 1; and milk, 11,800. Butter production in 2001 was 178,900 tons; cheese, 510,000; and honey, 9,500.