NIGERIA



Federal Republic of Nigeria

CAPITAL : Abuja

FLAG : The national flag consists of three vertical stripes. The green outer stripes represent Nigerian agriculture. The white center stripe represents unity and peace.

ANTHEM : Arise, All Compatriots .

MONETARY UNIT : On 1 January 1973, the Nigerian pound ( N £) was replaced by the naira ( N ) of 100 kobo at a rate of N 2 = N £1. There are coins of 1 / 2 , 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 kobo and 1 naira, and notes of 5, 10, 20, and 50 naira. N 1 = $0.0078 (or $1 = N 128; as of April 2003).

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : As of May 1975, the metric system is the official standard, replacing the imperial measures.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; National Day, 1 October; Christmas, 25 December; Boxing Day, 26 December. Movable Christian religious holidays include Good Friday and Easter Monday; movable Muslim religious holidays include 'Id al-Fitr, 'Id al-'Adha', and Milad an-Nabi.

TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.


LANGUAGES

The official language is English, although there are over 300 distinct indigenous tongues. Hausa is the mother tongue of more than 40% of the inhabitants of the northern states. Yoruba is commonly used in southwestern urban centers, including Lagos. Ibo and Fulani are also widely spoken. Ethnic divisions roughly reflect the distribution of other vernaculars.

DEPENDENCIES

Nigeria has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ate, Bassey E. Decolonization and Dependence: The Development of Nigerian-US Relations, 1960–1984 . Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1985.

Badru, Pade. Imperialism and Ethnic Politics in Nigeria, 1960– 1996. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1998.

Biersteker, Thomas J. Multinationals, the State, and Control of the Nigerian Economy. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1987.

Falola, Toyin. Culture and Customs of Nigeria. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2001.

——. Development Planning and Decolonization in Nigeria. Gainesville, Fla.: University of Florida Press, 1996.

Forrest, Tom. Politics and Economic Development in Nigeria. 2d ed. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1995.

Ihonvbere, Julius Omozuanvbo. Nigeria: The Politics of Adjustment and Democracy. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994.

Ikein, Augustine. The Impact of Oil on a Developing Country: The Case of Nigeria. New York: Praeger, 1990.

Isichei, Elizabeth. A History of Nigeria. London: Longman, 1983.

Kastfelt, Niels. Religion and Politics in Nigeria: A Study in Middle Belt Christianity. New York: British Academic Press, 1994.

King, Mae C. Basic Currents of Nigerian Foreign Policy. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1996.

Koehn, Peter H. Public Policy and Administration in Africa: Lessons from Nigeria. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1990.

Metz, Helen Chapin (ed.). Nigeria, a Country Study. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, 1992.

Myers, Robert A. Nigeria. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1989.

Nafziger, E. Wayne. The Economics of Political Instability: The Nigerian-Biafran War . Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1982.

Nigeria in Pictures. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co., 1988.

Oyewole, Anthony, and John Lucas. Historical Dictionary of Nigeria. 2d ed. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 2000.

Shepard, Robert Bruce. Nigeria, Africa, and the United States: from Kennedy to Reagan. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Thompson, Joseph E. American Policy and African Famine: the Nigeria-Biafra War, 1966–1970. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Umoren, Joseph A. Democracy and Ethnic Diversity in Nigeria. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1996.

Uwazie, Ernest E. et al, eds. Inter-Ethnic and Religious Conflict Resolution in Nigeria . Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 1999.

Watts, Michael (ed.). State, Oil, and Agriculture in Nigeria. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California, 1987.

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