Learned societies include ones for ecology, engineering, entomology, fisheries, forestry, genetics, geography, medicine, microbiology, nutrition, and veterinary medicine. The Federal Ministry of Science and Technology has 25 attached research institutes that focus on cereals, cocoa, lake ecology, horticulture, forestry, livestock, root crops, veterinary medicine, oceanography and marine sciences, oil palms, rubber, and tropical agriculture, among other areas. The Geological Survey of Nigeria, founded in 1919, is concerned with geological mapping, mineral exploration, geophysical and geochemical surveys, and consultation on geological problems.
The National Museum branch in Jos, founded in 1989, has zoological and botanical gardens and a transport museum. Obafemi Awolowo University in Ile-Ife has a natural history museum founded in 1948. Nigeria has 60 universities and colleges offering courses in basic and applied science. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 42% of college and university enrollments.
The Nigerian Academy of Science, founded in 1977, promotes and coordinates scientific and technological activities, trains scientists, advises the government on scientific matters, and organizes symposia and lectures. In 1987–97, research and development expenditures totaled 0.1% of GNP; 76 technicians and 15 scientists and engineers per million people were engaged in research and development.