TURKEY



Republic of Turkey

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti

CAPITAL : Ankara

FLAG : The national flag consists of a white crescent (open toward the fly) and a white star on a red field.

ANTHEM : Istiklâl Mars¸i (March of Independence).

MONETARY UNIT : The Turkish lira ( TL ) is a paper currency of 100 kurus¸. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 liras, and notes of 5,000, 10,000, 20,000, 50,000, 100,000, 250,000, and 500,000 liras. TL 1 = $0.000000626 (or $1 = TL 1,597,000.00) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; National Sovereignty and Children's Day, 23 April; Spring Day, 1 May; Youth and Sports Day, 19 May; Victory Day, 30 August; Independence Day (Anniversary of the Republic), 29 October. Movable religious holidays include S¸eker Bayrami (three days) and Kurban Bayrami (four days).

TIME : 3 PM = noon GMT.


DEPENDENCIES

Turkey has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ahmad, Feroz. The Turkish Experiment in Democracy, 1950– 1975. London: Hurst, 1977.

Alexander, Yonah (ed.). Combating Terrorism: Strategies of Ten Countries. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

——. The Making of Modern Turkey. New York: Routledge, 1993.

Berberoglu, B. Turkey in Crisis: From State Capitalism to Neocolonialism. Westport, Conn.: Hill, Lawrence, 1982.

Bianchi, Robert. Interest Groups and Political Development in Turkey. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Davison, Roderic H. Essays in Ottoman and Turkish History, 1774–1923: The Impact of the West. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990.

Dodd, C. H. Democracy and Development in Turkey. Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Humanities, 1979.

The Economy of Turkey Since Liberalization. Edited by V.N. Balasubramanyam and Subidey Togan. New York: St. Martin's, 1996.

Finkel, Andrew, and Nukhet Sirman (eds.) Turkish State, Turkish Society. New York: Routledge, 1990.

Hale, William. The Political and Economic Development of Modern Turkey. New York: St. Martin's, 1981.

——. Turkish Politics and the Military. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Heper, Metin. Historical Dictionary of Turkey. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow, 2002.

Heper, Metin, and Ahmet Evin (eds.). State, Democracy, and the Military: Turkey in the 1980s. New York: W. de Gruyter, 1988.

Heper, Metin, and Jacob M. Landau (eds.). Political Parties and Democracy in Turkey. New York: I.B. Tauris, 1991.

Kasaba, Resat. The Ottoman Empire and the World-economy: The Nineteenth Century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.

The Kurdish Nationalist Movement in the 1990s: Its Impact on Turkey and the Middle East. Edited by Robert Olson. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1996.

Palmer, Alan Warwick. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire. New York: M. Evans, 1993.

Persner, L. W. Turkey's Political Crisis: Background, Perspectives, Prospects. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, George Washington University Press, 1984.

Robinson, Richard D. The First Turkish Republic. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963.

Schick, Irvin C. and Ertugrul Ahmet Tonak (eds.). Turkey in Transition: New Perspectives. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Shaker, Sallama. State, Society, and Privatization in Turkey, 1979 – 1990. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Press Center, 1995.

Shaw, Stanford J., and Ezel Kural. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. 2 vols. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Toprak, Binnez. Islam and Political Development in Turkey. Leiden: Brill, 1981.

Turkey: A Country Study. 5th ed. Edited by Helen Chapin Metz. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 1996.

Weiker, Walter F. The Modernization of Turkey from Atatürk to the Present Day. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1981.

Zurcher, Erik Jan. Turkey: A Modern History. New York: I.B. Tauris, 1993.

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