Turkey's industrial economy has just begun to apply advanced technology to basic industries. The government body that coordinates scientific research is the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (founded in 1963), in Ankara. The Mavmara Scientific and Industrial Research Institute (1972), in Istanbul, conducts research on basic and applied sciences, and industrial research. The Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (1967), attached to the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, studies health physics, nuclear electronics, and plasma physics. The General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (1935), also in Ankara, conducts the Geological Survey of Turkey and evaluates mineral resources. The Turkish Natural History Museum was founded in 1968 at Ankara. Turkey has 29 universities that offer courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 45% of college and university enrollments.
In 1987–97, total expenditures on research and development amounted to 0.5% of GNP; 291 scientists and engineers per 1 million population were engaged in research and development.