The total armed forces strength in 2002 was 514,850 active personnel and 378,700 reserves. The army numbered 402,000 and included 14 armored brigades, 17 mechanized brigades, 9 infantry brigades, and 26 border defense battalions. Army equipment included 4,205 main battle tanks. The navy had 52,750 personnel including 3,100 marines and 1,050 Coast Guards. Vessels included 13 submarines, 19 frigates, 49 patrol and coastal combatants, 24 mine warfare vessels, and about 27 auxiliary ships. Naval aviation provides 29 ASW aircraft and armed helicopters. The air force had 60,100 personnel and 485 combat aircraft. Paramilitary forces included a 150-member national guard. An estimated 36,000 Turkish soldiers were stationed on Cyprus. Turkey participated in peacekeeping missions in seven regions. Defense expenditures were estimated at $8.1 billion in 2002, or 4.3% of GDP.