The Ministry of the Environment is the main environmental agency. Government statistics indicate considerable improvement in pollution control. Emissions of particles of sulfur dioxide declined substantially from 1972 to 1983. As of 1994, emissions of smoke, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead were well within EU acceptable limits. Luxembourg has 0.2 cu mi of water, with 45% used for industrial activity and 13% used in farming. The nation's cities produce 0.2 tons of solid waste and 817.7 tons of toxic substances. Luxembourg produces 3.3 tons of particulate emissions and 22 tons of hydrocarbon emissions per year.
Forest reserves have been severely depleted since 1800, when three-fourths of the country was forest; today forest and woodland cover only one-fifth of Luxembourg. During World War II, German requisitions and heavy demands for fuel contributed to this depletion. There is one endangered mammal species in Luxembourg, as well as eight bird species and one species of plant. Animals extinct in Luxembourg include the wolf and European otter.