MACEDONIA



Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
Republika Makedonija

CAPITAL : Skopje

FLAG : The flag consists of a gold sun with eight rays on a red field.

ANTHEM : Denec Nad Makedonija (Today over Macedonia)

MONETARY UNIT : The currency in use is the denar (D EN ). Denominations from smallest to largest are fifty deni, one denar, two denari, and five denari. In May 2003, US $1 = D EN 55.56 (or D EN 1 = US $0.0179), but exchange rates are likely to fluctuate.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is in effect in Macedonia.

HOLIDAYS : Orthodox Christmas, 7 January; national holiday, 2 August; Day of Referendum, 8 September.

TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.


CLIMATE

Macedonia's climate features hot summers and cold winters. Fall tends to be dry in the country. In July the average temperature is between 20 and 23° C (70 and 73° F ). The average temperature in January is between –20 and 0° C (–4 and 32° F ). Rainfall averages 51 cm (20 in) a year. Snowfalls can be heavy in winter.

FLORA AND FAUNA

The terrain of Macedonia is rather hilly. Between the hills are deep basins and valleys, populated by European bison, fox, rabbits, brown bears, and deer. Ducks, turtles, frogs, raccoons, and muskrats inhabit the country's waterways.

ETHNIC GROUPS

According to the most recent estimates (1994), Macedonians comprise about 66% of the population. Another 23% are ethnic Albanians, mostly living in the west, particularly the northwest. Other groups include Turks (4%), Roma (Gypsies, 3%), Serbs (2%), and others (2%).

FISHING

Inland fishing occurs on Lake Ohrid, Lake Prespa, and the Vardar River. The total catch in 2000 was 208 tons (primarily trout, bream, and carp), all from inland fishing. Macedonia has no direct access to the sea for marine fishing.

FORESTRY

About 36% of the total area consisted of forests and woodlands in 2000, mostly in the eastern and southern regions. Bitola is the center for the wood products industry. Total roundwood production in 2000 was 1,047,000 cu m (36.96 million cu ft), with 84% used as firewood.

ENERGY AND POWER

In 2000, 6.4 billion kWh of electricity were generated, 82.3% from conventional thermal plants and 17.7% from hydropower. Installed capacity totaled 1,566,000 kW in 2001. Consumption of electricity in 2000 was 6 billion kWh. Macedonia's only domestic mineral fuel is coal.

INSURANCE

In 1995, the Makedonija Insurance and Reinsurance Company was offering the following types of insurance: property, liability, life, accident, motor, fire, and marine.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimates that in 2001 Macedonia's central government took in revenues of approximately $850 million and had expenditures of $950 million. Overall, the government registered a deficit of approximately $100 million. External debt totaled $1.3 billion.

TAXATION

Personal income taxes range from 1.28-2.17%; corporate rates vary from 1.5-5.5%. Also levied is a payroll tax of 8.8-43%. On 1 April 2000 a value-added tax (VAT) was introduced with a standard rate of 19%. In April 2003, the standard rate was reduced to 18%. There is also a reduced rate of 5% applied to basic goods and services.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

Macedonia has adopted a duty-free import agreement with Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia (as of October 1996); importers pay only a 1% border crossing tax for document handling. Macedonia is also seeking to establish a trade zone with Bulgaria and Albania. The average weighted tariff in 2002 was 14.5%, up from 11% in 2000. Corruption in the customs system discourages trade.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Macedonia's isolation, technological disadvantages, and penchant for political instability created a poor climate for potential foreign investors. In 1995, the government began restructuring and privatizing its largest state-owned companies. After 1997, inflows of foreign investment increased substantially. In 2001, Hungary was the largest source of foreign direct investment.(FDI).

DEPENDENCIES

Macedonia has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ackermann, Alice. Making Peace Prevail: Preventing Violent Conflict in Macedonia. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2000.

Allcock, John B. Explaining Yugoslavia. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Banac, Ovo. The Nationality Question in Yugoslavia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1984.

Billows, Richard A. Antigonos the One-eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

Civil-Military Relations in the Soviet and Yugoslav Successor States . Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996.

Danforth, Loring M. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Gapinski, James H., Borislav Skegko and Thomas W. Zuehlka. Modeling the Economic Performance of Yugoslavia. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993.

Generation in Jeopardy: Children in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.

Kings and Colonists: Aspects of Macedonian Imperialism . New York: E.J. Brill, 1995.

Kofos, Evangelos. National Heritage and National Identity in Nineteenth-and Twentieth-century Macedonia. Athens: Hellenic Foundation for Defense and Foreign Policy, 1991.

Kophos, Euangelos. Nationalism and Communism in Macedonia: Civil Conflict, Politics of Mutation, National Identity. New Rochelle, N.Y.: A. D. Caratzas, 1993.

North American-Macedonian Conference on Macedonian Studies. Studies in Macedonian Language, Literature, and Culture: Proceedings of the First North American-Macedonian Conference on Macedonian Studies, Ann Arbor, 1991 . Ann Arbor, Mich.: Michigan Slavic Publications, 1995.

Pearson, Brenda. Putting Peace into Practice: Can Macedonia's New Government Meet the Challenge? Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2002.

Phillips, John. Macedonia: Warlords and Rebels in the Balkans. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

Poulton, Hugh. Who Are the Macedonians? Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1995.

Shea, John. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation . Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1997.

Vacalopoulos, Apostolos E. Contemporary Ethnological Problems in the Balkans. Thessaloniki: Society for Macedonian Studies, 1991.

Also read article about Macedonia from Wikipedia

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