LITHUANIA



Republic of Lithuania

Lietuvos Respublika

CAPITAL : Vilnius

FLAG : Three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red.

ANTHEM : Tautika Giesme (The National Song).

MONETARY UNIT : The Lithuanian lita of 100 cents has replaced the transitional system of coupons (talonas) which had been in force since October 1992, when the Soviet ruble was demonetized. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1, 2, and 5 litas, and notes of 10, 20, 50, and 100 litas; litas 1 = $0. 3336 (or $1 = litas 2.997) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is in force.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Day of the Restoration of the Lithuanian State, 16 February; Good Friday (movable); Anniversary of the Coronation of Grand Duke Mindaugas of Lithuania, 6 July; National Day of Hope and Mourning, 1 November; Christmas, 25–26 December.

TIME : 2 PM = noon GMT.


TOPOGRAPHY

The topography of Lithuania features primarily lowland terrain with many scattered small lakes and fertile soil. Moderate highlands lie to the east and south, with a few hilly regions in the west.

CLIMATE

Lithuania's climate is transitional between maritime and continental. Yearly, the mean temperature is 6.1° C (43° F ). The mean temperature in July is 17.1° C (63° F ). Rainfall averages from 49 cm (24 in) to 85 cm (33 in) depending on location.

ETHNIC GROUPS

In 1998, Lithuanians formed 80.6% of the population. Russians constituted 8.7%; Poles made up 7%, Belarussians accounted for1.6%; and other groups for the remaining 2.1%. Naturalization requires 10 years of residence and competence in Lithuanian.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

For administrative purposes, Lithuania's 10 provinces are divided into 44 regions; as well, there are urban districts, towns, and rural administrative units called apylinkes . Each level of local government has its own elected officials.

ARMED FORCES

In 2002 the active armed forces of Lithuania totaled 13,510, supported by 309,200 reserves. The army numbered 8,100, the navy 650, and the air force 1,000 with no combat aircraft. The paramilitary consisted of 5,000 border guards, a Riflemen Union of 8,850 and a coast guard of 540. Lithuania participated in peacekeeping operations in the region. The defense budget for 2001 was $231 million or 1.9% of GDP.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

About 7% of the total land area consists of permanent pastureland. Livestock in 2001 included 1,748,000 head of cattle, 868,000 pigs, 5,576,000 chickens, 11,500 sheep, and 68,000 horses. Meat production in 2001 totaled 188,000 tons, of which 34% was beef, 48% was pork, 16% was chicken, and 2% other meat. Milk production exceeded 1.7 million tons in 2001, when 41,500 tons of eggs were produced.

FISHING

Klaipe ˙da's fishing port is the center of the fishing industry. In 2000, the total catch was 78,987 tons, down from 470,251 tons in 1991. Principal species in 2000 included sprat, cod, and herring. Fisheries exports were valued at $33.7 million in 2000. There are two aquacultural facilities operating in Lithuania, consisting primarily of carp.

INSURANCE

Lithuania's health insurance system is reminiscent of the Soviet era through a state-run system of coverage for all residents.

FAMOUS LITHUANIANS

President Valdas Adamkus has been chief of state since 26 February 1998.

DEPENDENCIES

Lithuania has no territories or colonies.

Read about the Culture of Lithuania. More about Lithuania's Culture.

Read about the Geography of Lithuania.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Baltic States: The National Self-Determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. New York: St. Martin's, 1994.

Donskis, Leonidas. Identity and Freedom: Mapping Nationalism and Social Criticism in Twentieth-Century Lithuania. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Economic Survey of the Baltic States: The Reform Process in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London: Pinter Publishers, 1992.

Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania: Country Studies. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of the Army, 1996.

Hoshi, Iraj, Ewa Balcerowicz, Leszek Balcerowicz, edc. Barriers to Entry and Growth of New Firms in Early Transition: A Comparative Study of Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Albania, and Lithuania. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.

International Monetary Fund. Lithuania. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 1992.

——. Lithuania: An Economic Profile. Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 1992.

Krickus, Richard J. Showdown: The Lithuanian Rebellion and the Breakup of the Soviet Empire. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's, 1997.

Lieven, Anatol. The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Lithuania: Transition to a Market Economy. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1993.

McElrath, Karen (ed.). HIV and AIDS: A Global View. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2002.

Petersen, Roger Dale. Resistance and Rebellion: Lessons from Eastern Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Senn, Alfred Erich. Lithuania Awakening. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.

User Contributions:

Tomas
Report this comment as inappropriate
Oct 18, 2009 @ 9:21 pm
A little mistyping:
present text-"ANTHEM: Tautika Giesme"
should be written with - ANTHEM: Tautiska Giesme".
Just the one letter ;)
Melissa
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Nov 10, 2009 @ 1:13 pm
What about Cuisine? What kind of food do they eat? What are some traditional foods?

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