The numbers of emigrants and immigrants have been roughly equal in recent years. In 1982–86, an average of 4,079 residents left the country each year, while 5,109 persons entered intending residency. Many more came as refugees from Irian Jaya. In 1993, some 3,750 such immigrants were living in a camp in Western Province, while another 6,000 or so had land or kinship ties with Papuan New Guineans and were living near the border. The emigration in earlier years of nonindigenous residents may have been influenced by constitutional provisions that restricted eligibility for naturalization to those with eight years' residency, but limited their tax and business rights to the same status as those of aliens. Many rural dwellers migrated to Port Moresby and other urban centers during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1999, the net migration rate was zero. The number of migrants in 2000 totaled 23,000, including 5,900 refugees. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.