c. 563 B.C. The Buddha (Prince Siddhartha) is born in Lumbini, in the Tarai region of Nepal.
c. 400-750 A.D. Licchhavi kingdom in power in Kathmandu.
1100-1484. Khasa Malla kings rule in western Nepal.
1484. Malla kingdom divided; the 3 kingdoms of Kathmandu, Bhadgaon, and Patan are established.
1769. Nepal emerges as a unified state under the leadership of Prithivi Narayan Shah, who has waged his campaign from Gorkha in midwest Nepal. For the next half century, the economy is geared towards military expansion pursued by successive Shah rulers and their administrators.
1791-92. War between Nepal and China.
1814-16. Nepal is at war with Britain; hostilities are ended with the Treaty of Sugauli, which reduces the territory of Nepal.
1846. Jang Bahadur establishes hereditary Rana rule.
1854. The country's first legal code is proclaimed.
1855. Nepal goes to war with Tibet, which results in duty-free privileges for Nepalese traders and payment of tribute from Tibet.
1923. Treaty of Friendship is signed with Britain, confirming the independence of Nepal and a special relationship with the British Empire.
1950-51. The first democratic revolution takes place in Nepal, leading to the end of the Rana regime and the rehabilitation of the Shah dynasty. The government signs the Treaty of Trade and Commerce with India.
1955. Nepal is admitted to the United Nations.
1956. The first 5-year plan of economic development is drawn up.
1959. The first general elections are held in Nepal. The Nepali Congress Party is elected to government with Bishweswor Prasad Koirala as prime minister.
1960. Important revisions are made to the Trade and Transit Treaty with India. King Mahendra dismisses the elected Nepalese government and imprisons political leaders.
1962. The Panchayat system is established. The Land Reorganization Act and a new legal code are established.
1972. King Mahendra dies and is succeeded by King Birendra.
1980. A national referendum votes to support the Panchayat system.
1985. Nepal becomes a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).
1989. Failure to renegotiate the trade and transit treaties with India results in economic disruption.
1990. Popular protests led by the Nepali Congress and the United Left Front Coalition lead to the establishment of multiparty democracy.
1991. General elections are won by the Nepali Congress. Girija Prasad Koirala becomes prime minister.
1994. The Communist Party of Nepal (UML) wins mid-term elections and forms a minority government under Man Mohan Adhikari.
1995. A coalition government is formed under Sher Bahadur Deuba of the Nepali Congress.
1997-98. Successive coalition governments take power following the collapse of the Deuba government.
1999. General elections bring a new government under Krishna Prasad Bhattarai of the Nepali Congress. He is replaced by Girija Prasad Koirala the following year.
2001. The Crown Prince Dipendra opens fire on a family gathering at the royal palace, killing 9 members of the royal family, including the king and the queen. Dipendra dies of a self-inflicted wound. Widespread mourning and rioting accompanies the ascension to the throne of Gyanendra, the surviving brother of the late king.