Livestock production accounts for about 6% of GDP. There were an estimated 19.7 million head of cattle in Nigeria in 2001, over 90% of them in the north, owned mostly by nomadic Fulani. The prevalence of the tsetse fly in other areas restricts the majority of cattle to the fly-free dry savanna areas. The cattle owned by the Fulani and Hausa consist mainly of zebu breeds; cattle in the south are mainly Shorthorns. There were also an estimated 26.5 million goats, 21.5 million sheep, 5.3 million pigs, one million asses, 205,000 horses, and 135 million chickens.
Improvements in stock, slaughterhouse, cold storage, and transport facilities have made parts of Nigeria almost self-sufficient in meat production, but many Nigerians outside the north suffer protein deficiency in their diet. In 1998, 1.05 million tons of meat and 432,000 tons of cow's milk were produced. The Livestock and Meat Authority controls operations in transport and slaughtering in the north. An estimated 20.4 million sheep and goats and 1.8 million head of cattle were slaughtered in 1999.