Ukraine has virtually a 100% literacy rate with nearly 15% of the adult population having completed higher education. Of the remaining 85%, 7% have completed only elementary school, and 78% have completed secondary education.
While Ukrainian is the most commonly taught language and medium of instruction, other languages, such as Russian, Hungarian, Polish, Moldovan, or Crimean-Tatar, are offered based on the ethnic composition of the particular school district. Most schools are state run. In the 21,720 general primary schools, there were 2,658,800 students enrolled in 1994. There were 4,731,200 students enrolled in secondary schools in the same year. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level was estimated at 21 to 1 in 1999. In 1996, institutions of higher learning enrolled 1,541,000 students. As of 1999, public expenditure on education was estimated at 4.4% of GDP.