Serbia and Montenegro is a confederal parliamentary democratic republic, with two constituent states—the Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Montenegro. As of April 2003, the Serbian province of Kosovo remained governed by the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), and has self-government. The Serbian province of Vojvodina is nominally autonomous. A constitutional charter for the state was ratified by both the Serbian and Montenegrin parliaments in January 2003, and the constitution for the unified state was approved on 4 February 2003. The constitution allows the member republics to hold independence referendums in 2006.
The president is head of state. He or she is elected by parliament for a four-year term, nominates the members of the Council of Ministers and oversees their work. The Council of Ministers has five departments: foreign affairs, defense, international economic relations, internal economic relations, and the protection of human and minority rights.
The unicameral Assembly of Serbia and Montenegro has 126 members elected for four-year terms, with 91 members from Serbia and 35 from Montenegro. The prime minister is head of government and is appointed by the president.