SERBIA AND MONTENEGRO





CAPITAL : Belgrade

FLAG : The flag is a tricolor of blue, white, and red horizontal stripes.

ANTHEM :

MONETARY UNIT : The new dinar ( JD ) replaced the dinar on 24 January 1994. As of May 2003, JD 1 = $0.1696 (or $1 = JD 58.95).

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is in force.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 and 2 January; Orthodox Christmas, 7 January; Orthodox New Year, 13 January; Unification of Serbia, 28 March; FR Yugoslavia Day, 27 April; Labor Day, 1 May; Victory Day, 9 May; St. Vitus Day, 28 June; Serbian Uprising, 7 July.

TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.


TOPOGRAPHY

Rich fertile plains are found in the Serbian north, while in the east there are limestone ranges and basins. Serbia and Montenegro's mountains and uplands are in the southeast. The shoreline of southwestern Montenegro is highly elevated, with no offshore islands. Serbia and Montenegro has 15 mountains with elevations exceeding 2,000 m (6,560 ft). The highest point is Daravica, in the Prokletija range, at 2,656 m (8,714 ft).

FLORA AND FAUNA

The animals found in Serbia and Montenegro include types of hare, pheasant, deer, stag, wild boar, fox, chamois, mouflon, crane, duck, and goose.

LANGUAGES

Serbian is the principal language of 95% of the population; Albanian accounts for the remaining 5%.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Serbia and Montenegro is composed of two republics (Serbia and Montenegro) and two autonomous provinces (Kosovo and Vojvodina).

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

The Federal Court of Serbia and Montenegro has an equal number of judges from each member state. The judges are appointed by the Assembly for nonrenewable six-year terms. The judges must be law graduates with at least 15 years of legal practice behind them. The court has constitutional and administrative functions.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

In 2001, the livestock population included 3,364,000 pigs and hogs, 1,782,000 sheep, 1,360,000 head of cattle, 239,000 goats, 49,000 horses, and 21,100,000 poultry. Total meat production that year was 1,871,000 tons; milk, 1,759,000 tons. Between 1990 and 1999, total livestock production increased by 1.8%.

FISHING

The total catch in 2000 was 1,096 tons, 61% from inland waters. Common carp accounts for much of the inland catch.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2002 the purchasing power parity of Yugoslavia's (now Serbia and Montenegro's) exports was $2.2 billion while imports totaled $5.3 billion resulting in a trade deficit of $3.1 billion.

INSURANCE

Insurance of public transport passengers, motor vehicle insurance, aircraft insurance, and insurance on bank deposits are compulsory. Only domestic insurance companies may provide insurance. The insurance industry is monitored by the Federal Ministry of Finance.

PUBLIC FINANCE

Information on the government's revenue and expenditures are not available.

TAXATION

No recent information is available regarding Serbia and Montenegro's tax structure. In Serbia, the republic government, rather than the city governments, collects local taxes and then disperses part of the funds to city officials. Local factories pay no city taxes in Serbia.

DEPENDENCIES

Serbia and Montenegro has no dependencies or territories.

Read about the Culture of Serbia and Montenegro.

Read about the Geography of Serbia and Montenegro.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bennett, Christopher. Yugoslavia's Bloody Collapse: Causes, Course and Consequences. London: Hurst and Company, 1995.

Bokovoy, Melissa, Jill A. Irvine, and Carol S. Lilly, ed. State-Society Relations in Yugoslavia, 1945-1992. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

Brankovic, Srbobran. Serbia at War with Itself: Political Choice in Serbia 1990-1994. Belgrade: Sociological Society of Serbia, 1995.

Cevallos, Albert. Whither the Bulldozer? Nonviolent Revolution and the Transition to Democracy in Serbia. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Institute of Peace, 2001.

Cohen, Lenard J. Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia's Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995.

——. The Socialist Pyramid: Elites and Power in Yugoslavia. New York: Mosaic Press, 1989.

Denitch, Bogdan Denis. Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.

Dyker, David A., and Ivan Vejvoda, ed. Yugoslavia and After: A Study in Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth. New York: Longman, 1996.

Gapinski, James H. The Economic Structure and Failure of Yugoslavia. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1993.

International Smoking Statistics: A Collection of Historical Data from 30 Economically Developed Countries. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Judah, Tim. The Serbs: History, Myth, and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.

Klemencic, Matjaz. The Former Yugoslavia's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Oxford, Eng.: ABC-Clio, 2003.

Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

McFarlane, Bruce J. Yugoslavia: Politics, Economics, and Society. New York: Pinter, 1988.

Maleševic, Siniša. Ideology, Legitimacy, and the New State: Yugoslavia, Serbia, and Croatia. Portland, Ore.: Frank Cass, 2002.

Pavkovic, Aleksandar. The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State. New York: St. Martin's, 1997.

Ramet, Sabrina P. Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to Ethnic War. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

——. Beyond Yugoslavia: Politics, Economics, and Culture in a Shattered Community. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1995.

——. Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia, 1962-1991. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1992.

Sell, Louis. Slobodan Milosevic and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2002.

Singleton, Frederick Bernard. A Short History of the Yugoslav Peoples. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Stokes, Gale. Politics as Development: The Emergence of Political Parties in Nineteenth Century Serbia. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1990.

West, Richard. Tito: And the Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1995.

Woodward, Susan L. Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution After the Cold War. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1995.

——. Socialist Unemployment: The Political Economy of Yugoslavia, 1945-1990. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995.

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