The Most Serene Republic of San Marino
La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino
CAPITAL : San Marino
FLAG : The flag is divided horizontally into two equal bands, sky blue below and white above.
ANTHEM : Onore a te, onore, o antica repubblica (Honor to You, O Ancient Republic).
MONETARY UNIT : The Italian lira was replaced by the euro as official currency as of 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. As of May 2003, €1 = $1.0977 (or $1 = €0.911).
The country issues its own coins in limited numbers as well. Coins of San Marino may circulate in both the republic and in Italy.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.
HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Anniversary of St. Agatha, second patron saint of the republic, and of the liberation of San Marino (1740), 5 February; Anniversary of the Arengo, 25 March; Investiture of the Captains-Regent, 1 April and 1 October; Labor Day, 1 May; Fall of Fascism, 28 July; Assumption and August Bank Holiday, 14–16 August; Anniversary of the Foundation of San Marino, 3 September; All Saint's Day, 1 November; Commemoration of the Dead, 2 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 24–26 December; New Year's Eve, 31 December. Movable religious holidays include Easter Monday and Ascension.
TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.
LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe.With an area of 60 sq km (23 sq mi), it extends 13.1 km (8.1 mi) NE-SW and 9.1 km (5.7 mi) SE-NW . Comparatively, the area occupied by San Marino is about 0.3 times the size of Washington, D.C. It is a landlocked state completely surrounded by Italy, with a total boundary length of 39 km (24 mi).
The town of San Marino is on the slopes and at the summit of Mt. Titano (755 m/2,477 ft), and much of the republic is coextensive with the mountain, which has three pinnacles. Each of the peaks is crowned by old fortifications, that on the north by a castle and the other two by towers. Level areas around the base of Mt. Titano provide land for agricultural use.
The climate is that of northeastern Italy: rather mild in winter, but with temperatures frequently below freezing, and warm and pleasant in the summer, reaching a maximum of 26° C (79° F ). Winter temperatures rarely fall below 7° C (19° F ). Annual rainfall averages between 56 and 80 cm (22 to 32 in).
FLORA AND FAUNA
The republic has generally the same flora and fauna as northeastern Italy. The hare, squirrel, badger, fox, and porcupine are among the more common animals seen. Most of the landscape has been cultivated with orchards, vineyards, and olive groves.
Urbanization is the primary concern for the environment; however, the country has shown great care for environmental protection and preservation both within its own borders and in the global arena. Environmental protection is controlled by the Ministry of State for Territory, Environment, and Agriculture. San Marino has no endangered species; however, the lesser horseshoe bat is listed as vulnerable.
The native population is predominantly of Italian origin.
Italian is the official language.
San Marino consists of nine administrative divisions or castles ( castelli ): Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, and Serravalle. Each castle has an auxiliary council, elected for a four-year term. It is headed by an official called the captain of the castle, who is elected every two years.
The San Marino militia nominally consists of all able-bodied citizens between the ages of 16 and 55, but the armed forces actually maintained are principally for purposes of ceremonial display; these include the noble guard used in various functions.
San Marino became a member of the UN on 2 March 1992, and it belongs to the OSCE, FAO, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF, ITU, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, and WIPO. San Marino sends its own delegation to the 35-nation Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe and is a member of the World Tourism Organization and the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations.
About 17% of the land is arable. Annual crop production includes wheat and grapes, as well as other grains, vegetables, fruits, and fodder.
Livestock raising uses some 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres), or about 23% of the total area. Cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses are raised.
There is no fishing.
Small quantities of wood are cut for local use.
San Marino had no commercial mineral resources.
ENERGY AND POWER
Electric power is imported from Italy.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Sanmarinese students generally pursue their scientific and technical training abroad, since science and technology resources are domestically limited. The Universita Degli Studi, founded in 1987, has a department of technology. The Institute of Cybernetics, founded in 1965, offers courses in computer science.
There are small general stores in the capital and the smaller towns. Billboards and newspapers are the main advertising medium. A weekly market is held at Borgo Maggiore, which also sponsors an annual fair for the sale of cattle and sheep. Most retail trade within the country is focused on goods and services that support the tourism industry.
Records of foreign trade are not published, but it is known that imports far exceed exports. Principal exports are wine, textiles, furniture, quarried stone, ceramics, and handicrafts. The chief imports are raw materials and a wide variety of consumer goods. San Marino has a customs union with Italy.
In 1999, San Marino joined the European Monetary Union (EMU), further strengthening its ties to the EU.
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
Since imports and exports are not subject to customs duties, no record is kept of foreign payments transactions. Receipts from tourism, remittances from Sanmarinese working abroad, and sales of postage stamps to foreign collectors are principal sources of foreign exchange.
BANKING AND SECURITIES
The principal bank, the Cassa di Risparmio, was founded in 1882. Other banks include the Banca Agricola and the Cassa Rurale. There are no securities transactions in San Marino. In 1999 San Marino joined the European Monetary Union (EMU) and adopted the euro.
Several major Italian insurance companies have agencies in San Marino.
Legislation introducing San Marino's first income tax was passed by the Grand and General Council in October 1984. A general income tax is applied progressively to individuals (12-50% in 1992) and a flat rate of 24% to corporations. Also levied are a stamp duty, registration tax, mortgage tax, and succession duty.
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
San Marino's trade policy is governed by its customs union with Italy. There is a one-phase duty system on imported goods, which closely follows the rates of the Italian value-added tax (VAT) system. In 1992, there was a 14% tax on imports. In 1999 San Marino joined the European Monetary Union.
Information on foreign investment is not available.
In addition to promoting tourism in San Marino, the government has encouraged the establishment of small-scale industries and service-oriented enterprises (40–60 employees) by offering tax exemptions for 5–10 years.
In 1986, San Marino had 7,926 dwellings, virtually all with electricity and piped-in water. Most new construction is financed privately. The housing stock for the nation is generally adequate to supply the population. Government concerns are primarily preventing over construction of rural areas.
National youth organizations include the Young Christian Democrats and The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino. The Red Cross has a national chapter.
San Marino has no territories or colonies.
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