As of 1998, there were some 647,000 ha (1,626,000 acres) of arable land, representing 25% of the total land area. Most private farms are very small; 65% of private farmers own at most one ha (2.7 acres) sometimes scattered in five or six locations.
Wheat production is concentrated in south central Macedonia and in public farms. Corn and barley are produced throughout the country, mostly by the private sector. About 80% of agricultural land is held by the private sector. The remaining 20% is held by state-owned enterprises known as Kombinats. Estimated grain production in 1999 included: wheat, 378,000 tons; barley, 142,000 tons; and corn, 200,000 tons. Rye, rice, and oats are also grown in smaller quantities. Other important crops produced in 1999 included (in 1,000 tons): tomatoes, 127; potatoes, 180; sunflower seeds, 14; sugar beets, 58; and walnuts, 3. In 1999, 244,000 tons of grapes and 123,000 tons of wine were produced. Tobacco is grown throughout Macedonia and is planted on 4% of the arable land. Production was 32,000 tons in 1999.