ALBANIA



Republic of Albania

Republika é Shqipërisë

CAPITAL : Tiranë

FLAG : The flag consists of a red background at the center of which is a black double-headed eagle.

ANTHEM : Hymni i Flamúrit (Anthem of the Flag) begins "Rreth flamúrit të për bashkuar" ("The flag that united us in the struggle").

MONETARY UNIT : The lek ( L ) of 100 qindarka is a convertible paper currency. There are coins of 5, 10, 20, 50 qindarka, and 1 lek, and notes of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, and 500 leks. L 1 = $0.0079 (or $1 = L 126.53) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Small Bayram, end of Ramadan, 16 December 2001*; International Women's Day, 8 March; Catholic Easter, April**; Orthodox Easter, April**; Great Bayram, Feast of the Sacrifice, 6 March 2001*; Independence Day, 28 November; Christmas Day, 25 December.

*Dependent on the Islamic lunar calendar and will vary from the dates given.

** Dependent on religious calendar, and also will vary.

TIME : 1 PM = noon GMT.


ETHNIC GROUPS

Generally regarded as descendants of the ancient Illyrians, the Albanians make up about 95% of the population. Ethnic Greeks comprise as much as 3% of the populace. Other groups, including Gypsies, Vlachs, Bulgarians, and Serbs, make up the remaining 2%. The Albanians themselves fall into two major groups: the Ghegs in the north and the Tosks in the south, divided by the Shkumbin River.

FISHING

Fishing is an important occupation along the Adriatic coast. In 1958, a development program for inland fisheries was begun, and the results were improved exploitation and conservation as well as increased fish reserves and catches. Annual fish production was estimated at 3,320 tons in 2000 of which 995 tons came from marine fishing. Exports of fish products amounted to almost $5.4 million in 2000.

DEPENDENCIES

Albania has no territories or colonies.

Read about the Culture of Albania. More about Albania's Culture.

Read about the Geography of Albania.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bland, William B. Albania. Oxford; Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio, 1988.

Costa, Nicolas J. Albania: A European Enigma. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs; New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1995.

——. Shattered Illusions: Albania, Greece and Yugoslavia. Boulder, Colo.: East European Monographs; New York: Distributed by Columbia University Press, 1998.

Destani, Beytullah (ed.). Albania and Kosovo: Political and Ethnic Boundaries, 1867–1946. New York: Archive Editions, 1999.

Hall, Derek R. Albania and the Albanians. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.

Halliday, Jon (ed.). The Artful Albanian: Memoirs of Enver Hoxha. Topsfield, Mass.: Salem House, 1987.

Hutchings, Raymond. Historical Dictionary of Albania. Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996.

Marx, Trish. One Boy from Kosovo. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.

Pano, Nicholas C. Albania: Politics, Economics, and Society. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1986.

Perspectives on Albania. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Pipa, Arshi. Albanian Stalinism: Ideo-political Aspects. Boulder, Colo.: East European, 1990.

Pollo, Stefanay, and Arben Puto. The History of Albania. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981.

Schnytzer, Adi. Stalinist Economic Strategy in Practice: The Case of Albania. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Sjoberg, Orjan. Rural Change and Development in Albania. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991.

Thirty-Five Years of Socialist Albania: Statistical Data on the Development of the Economy and Culture. Tiranë: "8 Nëntori" Publishing House, 1981.

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