Deforestation remains Albania's principal environmental problem, despite government afforestation programs. Forest and woodland account for 38% of the country's land use. Soil erosion is also a cause for concern, as is pollution of the water by industrial and domestic affluents. While Albania has a comparatively small amount of renewable water resources at 26.7 cu km, 99% of its urban population and 95% of its rural population have access to pure water.
Albania produced 1,942 million metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions from industrial sources in 1996.
A total of 2.9% of Albania's lands amounting to 84 ha is protected by environmental laws. As of 2001, 17 of the 3,000-plus plant species in Albania were endangered. Two mammal species and seven bird species were also threatened. Endangered species include the Atlantic sturgeon, Mediterranean monk seal, and the hawksbill turtle.