Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Islami Jamhooria Pakistan
CAPITAL : Islāmābād
FLAG : The national flag is dark green, with a white vertical stripe at the hoist and a white crescent and five-pointed star in the center.
ANTHEM : The opening lines of the national anthem, sung in Urdu, are "Blessed be the sacred land, Happy be the bounteous realm, Symbol of high resolve, land of Pakistan, Blessed be thou citadel of faith."
MONETARY UNIT : The rupee ( R ) is a paper currency of 100 paisa. There are coins of 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, and 50 paisa and of 1 rupee, and notes of 1, 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 rupees. R 1 = $0.0175 (or $1 = R 56.90) as of May 2003.
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system was introduced in 1966 and made mandatory as of 1 January 1979.
HOLIDAYS : Pakistan Day, 23 March; May Day, 1 May; Independence Day, 14 August; Defense of Pakistan Day, 6 September; Anniversary of Death of the Quaid-e-Azam, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, 11 September; Christmas and Birthday of the Quaid-e-Azam, 25 December. Religious holidays include 'Id al-Fitr, Id al-'Adha', 1st of Muharram, and Milad an-Nabi.
TIME : 5 PM = noon GMT.
Pakistan has no territories or colonies.
Ahmed, Akbar S. (ed.). Pakistan: the Social Sciences' Perspective. Karāchi: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Ali, Akhtar. The Political Economy of Pakistan: An Agenda for Reforms. Karāchi, Pakistan: Royal Book Co., 1996.
American University. Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1984.
Burki, Shahid Javed. Historical Dictionary of Pakistan. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1991.
Chopra, Pran. India, Pakistan, and the Kashmir Tangle. New Delhi: Indus, 1994.
Contemporary Issues in Pakistan Studies. Edited by Saeed Shafqat. Lahore: Gautam Publishers, 1995.
Donnan, Hastings and Pnina Werbner (eds.). Economy and Culture in Pakistan: Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991.
Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. Edited by S. S. Shashi. New Delhi: Anmol Publications, 1996.
Hasan, Mushirul (ed.). India's Partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilization. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Khan, Riaz M. Untying the Afghan Knot: Negotiating Soviet Withdrawal. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1991.
Korson, J. Henry (ed.). Contemporary Problems of Pakistan. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1993.
Mahmud, S. F. A Concise History of Indo-Pakistan. 2d ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Malik, Iftikhar H. State and Civil Society in Pakistan: Politics of Authority, Ideology, and Ethnicity. Houndmills, U.K.: Macmillan, 1997.
Noman, Omar. Pakistan: A Political and Economic History since 1947. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1990.
Pakistan: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1995.
Pakistan-American Relations: The Recent Past. Edited by M. Raziullah Azmi. Karāchi, Pakistan: Royal Book Co., 1994.
Political System in Pakistan. Edited by Verinder Grover and Ranjana Arora. New Delhi: Deep and Deep, 1995.
Qasir, Nadeem. Pakistan Studies: an Investigation into the Political Economy, 1948–1988. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Raza, M. Hanif. Portrait of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Ferozsons, 1994.
Saeed, Khawaja Amjad. Economy of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: S. A. Salam Publications, 1995.
Saliba, Therese, Carolyn Allen, and Judith A. Howard, eds. Gender, Politics, and Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Shebab, Rafi Ullah. The Political History of Pakistan. Lahore, Pakistan: Dost Associates, 1995.
Stern, Robert W. Democracy and Dictatorship in South Asia: Dominant Classes and Political Outcomes in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2001.
Taylor, David D. Pakistan. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1990.
Weinbaum, Marvin G. Pakistan and Afghanistan: Resistance and Reconstruction. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1994.