The main challenges to the environment in Fiji are deforestation, soil erosion, and pollution. Over the last 20 years or so, 30% of Fiji's forests have been eliminated by commercial interests. The rainfall pattern, the location of agricultural areas, and inadequate agricultural methods contribute to the loss of valuable soils. Fiji is also concerned about rising sea levels attributed to global warming caused by the burning of fossil fuels in the industrial world.
The land and water supply are polluted by pesticides and chemicals used in the sugar and fish processing industries. The nation has about 6.9 cu mi of water with roughly 60% used for farming purposes and 20% used for industrial activity. The nation's cities produce 0.1 million tons of solid waste per year.
Fiji's natural environment is protected by the National Trust, which under the 1981–85 development plan began to establish national parks to conserve the island's unspoiled landscape, reefs, and waters, as well as indigenous flora and fauna. As of 2001, four species of mammal, nine types of birds, six species of reptiles and one type of amphibian were considered endangered, as were 64 of Fiji's 1,600-plus plant species. Threatened species include the Fiji banded iguana and crested iguana, the Fiji petrel, the insular flying-fox, and the Samoan flying-fox. The bar-winged rail has become extinct.