1918. The first Republic of Azerbaijan is established.
1919. The Soviet Union conquers Azerbaijan, absorbing it back into the country.
1989. Azerbaijan calls for withdrawal from the Soviet Union. The conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh begins.
1990. Soviet military intervenes. Moscow appoints Ayaz Muttalibov as the leader of Azerbaijan.
1991. Azerbaijan declares independence in October.
1992. The war with Armenia dominates Azerbaijani politics.
1992. Abulfaz Elchibey wins the presidential election in June.
1993. Heydar Aliyev is elected president in October, with 98.9 percent of the votes.
1994. A ceasefire is signed with Armenia.
1995. A new constitution is adopted by referendum.
1998. Aliyev wins reelection as president.
2000. Aliyev's party wins parliamentary elections in November.