The official language is Armenian. Education is compulsory between the ages of 7 and 15 hears and is free at both the primary and secondary levels. Elementary education lasts three years and intermediate education lasts five years. This is followed by two years of general secondary education. Since the early 1990s, increasing emphasis has been placed on Armenian history and culture. In 1999 the adult illiteracy rate was 1.7%.
There are two universities in Yerevan: the Yerevan State University (founded in 1919) and the State Engineering University of Armenia. Seven other educational institutions are located in the capital. As of 1999, public expenditure on education was estimated at 2% of GDP.
In 1996, there were 1,402 primary schools, with a total enrollment of 256,475 students and 13,620 teachers. The secondary pupil-teacher ratio in 1995 was 10 to 1. In 1991 a total of 125,900 students were enrolled in all higher-level institutions.