Uzbekistan's main environmental problems are soil salinity, land pollution, and water pollution. In 1992, Uzbekistan had the world's 27th highest level of carbon dioxide emissions, which totaled 123.5 million metric tons, a per capita level of 5.75 metric tons. In 1996, the total dropped to 94.9 million metric tons. Chemicals used in farming, such as DDT, contribute to the pollution of the soil. Desertification is a continuing concern.
The nation's forestlands are also threatened and continue to dwindle. Between 1990-1995, deforestation occurred at an annual average rate of 2.65%.
The country's water supply also suffers from toxic chemical pollutants from industrial activity as well as fertilizers and pesticides. Uzbekistan has 16.3 cu km of renewable water resources, with 94% used for farming and 2% used for industrial purposes. The Aral Sea has been drying up and, as a result, pesticides and natural salts in its water have become increasingly concentrated. The nation's cities produce an average of 45.8 million tons of solid waste per year.
As of 2001, only 1.8% of Uzbekistan's total land area is protected. In 2001, 7 mammal species and 11 bird species were threatened with extinction. Threatened or rare species include the markhor, Central Asia cobra, Aral salmon, slender-billed curlew, and Asiatic wild dog. The Jeseter hladky has become extinct.