The flora is closely related to that of southern China and the Philippines. Taiwan has almost 190 plant families, about 1,180 genera, and more than 3,800 species, of which indigenous members constitute about one-third of the total flora. Mangrove forest is found in tidal flats and coastal bays. From sea level to a height of 2,000 m (6,600 ft) is the zone of broad-leaved evergreen tropical and subtropical forest, where ficua, pandanus, palms, teak, bamboos, and camphors are commonly found. The mixed forest of broad-leaved deciduous trees and conifers occupies the next zone, extending from a height of 2,000 to 3,000 m (6,600– 9,800 ft). Pines, cypresses, firs, and rhododendrons are grown in this region. Above this level is the zone of coniferous forests, composed mainly of firs, spruce, juniper, and hemlock.
The mammals so far discovered number more than 60 species, 45 of which appear to be indigenous to the island. The largest beast of prey is the Formosan black bear. Foxes, flying foxes, deer, wild boar, bats, squirrels, macaques, and pangolins are some of the mammals seen on the island. There are more than 330 species and subspecies of birds, of which 33 are common to the island, China, and the Philippines, and about 87 are peculiar forms. More than 65 species of reptiles and amphibians inhabit the island. There is an abundance of snakes, of which 13 species are poisonous. The insect life is rich and varied.