Iraq - Industry

Main industries are oil refining, food processing, textiles, leather goods, cement and other building materials, tobacco, paper, and sulfur extraction. Iraq has ten oil refineries, all managed by the government's Oil Refineries Administration. The Iraq-Iran and Gulf wars seriously affected Iraqi refining. Iraq has total refinery capacity of 350,000 barrels per day (the Iraqi government claims 700,000), with the largest refinery, Baiji North, rated at 150,000 barrels per day. The second-largest refinery, at Salaheddin, has a capacity of 140,000 barrels per day. The bulk of Iraq's refinery capacity is concentrated in the Baiji complex.

In 1964, the government took over all establishments producing asbestos, cement, cigarettes, textiles, paper, tanned leather, and flour. Public-sector industrial establishments include a sulfur plant at Kirkuk, a fertilizer plant at Basra, an antibiotics factory at Samarra', an agricultural implements factory at Iskandariyah, and an electrical equipment factory near Baghdad. In the 1970s, Iraq put strong emphasis on the development of heavy industry and diversification of its current industry, a policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil. During the 1980s, the industrial sector showed a steady increase, reflecting the importance given to military industries during the Iran–Iraq war. By early 1992 it was officially claimed that industrial output had been restored to 60% of pre-Gulf War capacity. The UN oil-for-food program has allowed limited oil sales in 1999 and 2000, despite economic sanctions resulting from the Gulf War.

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