Under tax laws written in May of 1992, individual income is taxed at rates varying from 12–54%. Capital gains and investment income are also taxable, and employees pay a 7% social security contribution. Corporate income, which is also taxed at between 12% and 54%, varies among corporations, partnerships, and branches of foreign corporations. The taxable income of a company is subject to a 10% company tax, and the balance is subject to the income tax rates above. Also levied are real estate taxes, municipal tax, and a 23% levy on expatriate salaries. A new value-added tax of 1% of a manufacturing company's sales can be collected. Another tax is a public education cost levy to be paid by manufacturing and service companies.