Indonesia - Science and technology

Like many developing nations, Indonesia has a shortage of scientific personnel and engineers. The Indonesian Institute of Sciences, a government agency established in 1967, has centers for research and development in biology; oceanology; geotechnology; applied physics and applied chemistry; metallurgy; limnology; biotechnology; electricity and electrical engineering; information and computer sciences; telecommunication, strategic electronics, component and material sciences; and calibration, instrumentation, and metrology. The country has 45 other research institutes concerned with agriculture and veterinary science, medicine, the natural sciences, and technology. Courses in basic and applied sciences are offered at 53 state and private universities. At a more basic level, Agricultural Training Center programs provide workshops throughout Indonesia to acquaint rural workers with the use of plumbing and automotive equipment, small engines, electric tools, and chain saws, and to familiarize farmers with the use of modern hybrid seeds, pesticides, and fertilizers. In 1987–97, total expenditures for research and development amounted to 0.07% of GDP; 182 scientists and engineers per million population were engaged in research and development. During the same period, science and engineering students accounted for 39% of all college and university students. In 1998, high-tech exports were valued at $2.1 billion and accounted for 10% of manufactured exports.

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