Although the shipping technology of the Panama Canal is owned and operated by the US, technicians from the US who operated the canal's facilities were replaced gradually by Panamanian personnel before the canal was officially turned over to Panama. The National Academy of Sciences of Panama (founded in 1942) advises the government on scientific matters, and the National Research Center (1976) coordinates scientific and technological research. The Smithsonian Institution has had a tropical research institute in Balboa since 1923. The University of Panama, founded in 1935 in Panama City, has faculties of agriculture, medicine, sciences, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. Santa María La Antigua University, founded in 1965 at El Doradom Panama, has a department of technology and natural science. The Technological University of Panama, founded in 1984 at El Dorado, has colleges of civil, mechanical, industrial, electrical, and computer-science engineering. The Nautical School of Panama, founded in 1959 at Paitilla, offers courses in nautical engineering. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 29% of college and university enrollments. The Museum of Natural Sciences, founded in Panama in 1975, is concerned with natural history and the fauna of Panama and other countries.