Loss of agricultural land to erosion, and degradation of range and forest lands because of overgrazing or overcutting of timber for fuel are major concerns. Erosion threatens 76% of the nation's land area. Overcrowding and poor sanitation in urban centers are also major environmental problems. Pollution from industry and farming activities threatens the nation's limited water supply. Tunisia has 3.5 cubic kilometers of renewable water resources with 83% used for farming and 3% for industrial purposes. Only 58% of the people living in rural areas have pure drinking water. The nation's cities produce about 0.9 million tons of solid waste; inadequate disposal of toxic and hazardous wastes poses health risks. There are four national parks.
In 2001, 11 of the nation's mammal species and 6 bird species were endangered. Six types of plants were also endangered. Endangered species in Tunisia include the Barbary hyena, Barbary leopard, two species of gazelle (Cuvier's and slender-horned), the Mediterranean monk seal, oryx, and Mococcan dorcas gazelle. The Bubal hartebeest has become extinct. The A World Wildlife Fund project succeeded in rescuing the Atlas deer from near extinction.