Projected rates of adult illiteracy for the year 2000 stand at 20.2% (males, 19.1%; females, 21.3%). There are government, mission, and private schools. The majority of primary and secondary schools are run by missions with grants from the government. In 1997 there were 529 primary schools with 205,829 pupils and 6,094 teachers. In 1996 secondary schools had 57,330 students and 2,954 teachers. The pupil-teacher ratio at the primary level was 33 to 1 in 1999. In the same year, 93% of primary-school-age children were enrolled in school, while 37% of those eligible attended secondary school. Children go through seven years of primary and five years of secondary schooling. Schooling is not compulsory, and nominal fees are charged to parents. Higher education is provided by the University of Swaziland and the Swaziland College of Technology. In all higher-level institutions there were 467 teaching staff and 5,658 students in 1996/1997. As of 1999, public expenditure on education was estimated at 6.1% of GDP.