The South-West Africa Water and Electricity Corp. (SWADEC) draws power from a hydroelectric facility on the Angola-Namibian border and from thermal plants near Walvis Bay and Windhoek. The 120 MW Van Eck power station, the 320 MW Ruacana hydroelectric station, and the 45 MW Paratus facility form a local generating capacity that is linked not only to the South African grid but to the Zambian grid as well. Production in 2000 totaled 30 million kWh, of which 2% was from fossil fuels and 98% from hydropower. Consumption of electricity in 2000 was 890.9 million kWh. Development of the proposed Epupa hydroelectric plant, which would increase capacity by 450 MW, was still stalled as of 2003. Proponents of the project believe it is crucial to Namibia's future energy needs, but critics oppose it as unnecessary and environmentally unsound. All coal and petroleum products come from South Africa.
Three Norwegian oil companies were exploring an offshore area of 11,000 sq km (4,250 sq mi) in the early 1990s. The government conducted a round of licensing in 1995 in which all available offshore and onshore blocks were opened for international bidding.