Early figures associated with the area of present-day Mali include Mansa Musa (r.1312–37), ruler of the Mali Empire, and Sonni 'Ali Ber (r.1464–92) and Askia Muhammad I (r.1492–1528), rulers of the Songhai Empire. Later figures include al-Hajj 'Umar (1797–1864), who plunged the entire area into a bloody holy war before he was killed while trying to put down a rebellion, and Samory Touré, (1835–1900), who fought the French at the head of a Malinké (Mandingo) army for 16 years (1882–98). Modibo Keita (1915–77) was, until November 1968, a leading figure in the political life of the country. He became the first president of the Republic of Mali in 1960. Moussa Traoré (b.1936) was president of Mali from 1969 to 1991. Alpha Oumar Konaré(b.1947) was elected president in 1992. Brigadier Gen. Amadou Toumani Touré is considered the founder of Mali's democratic movement.