As of 1999, there were an estimated 0.1 physicians and 0.6 hospital beds per 1,000 people. It is estimated that 80% of the population had access to health care services in 1990–95.
The Republic of Guinea lies along the "goiter belt" of the Atlantic coast from west to central Africa. Low iodine intake has led to goiter in predominantly rural areas. Malaria, yaws, leprosy (3,580 cases in 1995), and sleeping sickness (in the forest areas in the Guinea Highlands) have been the major tropical diseases; tuberculosis and venereal diseases are also prevalent. There were 255 cases of tuberculosis in 1999 per 100,000 people. In 1995 there were 1,085 reported cases of measles. Yellow fever and smallpox have been brought under control, but schistosomiasis remains widespread. In 2000, 48% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 58% had adequate sanitation. The most common diseases for children under five years old in 1994 were diarrhea, respiratory infections, helminthiasis, and malaria. In 1997, children up to one year old were vaccinated against tuberculosis, 69%; diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 53%; polio, 53%; and measles, 56%. Total health care expenditures in 1999 were 3.8% of GDP.
In 2002 Guinea had an estimated birthrate of 39.5 per 1,000 people. In 2000 the total fertility rate was 5.2 births per woman. Only 2% of Guinean women used some form of contraception in 1991. Malnutrition affected 26% of all children under five years old as of 1999. Goiter was found in 62.6% of school-age children in 1996. Infant mortality in 2000 was 95 per 1,000 live births and the overall mortality rate was estimated at 17 per 1,000 people in 2002. Average estimated life expectancy was 46 years in 2000.
In 1999, the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at 55,000 and deaths from AIDS that year were estimated at 5,600. HIV prevalence was 1.54 per 100 adults.
Since 1986, Guinea has been revamping its health care system. Using the Bamako Initiative previously used by other sub-Saharan African nations, Guinea has set up several smaller health centers that offer immunization services, AIDS prevention and control, family planning, and tuberculosis control. In 1995, 105 health posts were functioning.