In 1987 Chad had 4 hospitals, 44 smaller health centers, 1 UNICEF clinic, and 239 other clinics—half under religious auspices. Many regional hospitals were damaged or destroyed in fighting, and health services barely existed in 1987. Public health care expenditures were estimated at 2.9% of GDP as of 1999. As of 1999, it was estimated that there were fewer than 0.05 physicians per 1,000 people, and 0.7 hospital beds
All medicine, antibiotic, and vaccine imports must be authorized by the Ministry of Health. The most common diseases are schistosomiasis, leprosy, malaria, spinal meningitis, tuberculosis, and yaws, as well as malnutrition. In 1999, there were 270 reported cases of tuberculosis per 100,000 people. Immunization rates in 1999 were very low for children up to one year of age: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 21%, and measles, 30%. In 2000, 27% of the population had access to safe drinking water and 29% had adequate sanitation.
Chad had a birth rate of 43 per 1,000 people in 1999. The infant mortality rate in 2000 was 101 per 1,000 live births. Maternal mortality has increased to one of the highest rates in Africa. Over 300 women died in childbirth or pregnancy per 100,000 live births, according to 1998 estimates. As of 2000, only 4% of married women (ages 15 to 49) used any form of contraception. In Chad, 1.9 million or 60% of the women underwent female genital mutilation in 1994. At that time there was no law prohibiting it.
The average life expectancy in 2000 was estimated at 48 years and the overall death rate was estimated at 15 per 1,000 as of 2002. At the end of 2001 the number of people living with HIV/AIDS was estimated at 150,000 and deaths from AIDS that year were estimated at 14,000. HIV prevalence in 1999 was 2.69 per 100 adults.