Ngarta Tombalbaye (1918–75) was the first president of the independent Republic of Chad. Gen. Félix Malloum (b.1932) became chief of state after the 1975 coup, but was ousted in 1979. Goukouni Oueddei (b.1944) served (1979–82) as president and subsequently led a Libyan-backed rival government in northern Chad. Hissène Habré (b.1942), a Muslim military leader, seized the capital in 1982 and became president. Idriss Déby (b.1950) seized power in 1990 after a French-supported invasion from Sudan.