Singapore

Official name: Republic of Singapore

Area: 648 square kilometers (250 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Bukit Timah (166 meters/545 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

Time zone: 8 P.M. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 42 kilometers (26 miles) from east-northeast to west-southwest; 23 kilometers (14 miles) from south-southeast to north-northwest

Land boundaries: None

Coastline: 193 kilometers (120 miles)

Territorial sea limits: 5.6 kilometers (3 nautical miles)

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

The Republic of Singapore consists of a main island and sixty-three islets just south of the tip of the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Singapore, the second smallest country in Asia, is often described as a city-state. The diamond-shaped main island, which accounts for all but about 38 square kilometers (15 square miles) of the republic's area, is almost entirely urban. With a total area of 648 square kilometers (250 square miles), Singapore is nearly 3.5 times the size of Washington, D.C.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Singapore has no territories or dependencies.

3 CLIMATE

Singapore has a humid, rainy, tropical climate, with temperatures moderated by the seas surrounding the islands. Temperatures are nearly uniform throughout the year, averaging 25°C (77°F) in January and 27°C (81°F) in June. Although the island lies between 1 and 2 degrees north of the equator, the maritime influences moderate the heat of the region. The highest temperature ever recorded in Singapore is only 36°C (97°F).

Singapore is very humid, with heavy rainfall all year. Annual rainfall averages 237 centimeters (93 inches). The northeast monsoon that occurs between November and March brings the heaviest rainfall of the year.

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

The main island has three major geographic divisions: an elevated, hilly area in the center; a section of lower, rolling land to the west; and flatlands to the east. Singapore's smaller islands are low-lying with coastal beaches.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

Singapore is located between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.

Seacoast and Undersea Features

The coastal waters surrounding Singapore are generally less than 30 meters (100 feet) deep.

Sea Inlets and Straits

Singapore is bordered on the north by the Johore Strait, which separates it from the Malay Peninsula, on the southeast by the Singapore Strait, and on the southwest by the Strait of Malacca.

Islands and Archipelagos

After Singapore Island, the next-largest island in the country is Pulau Tekong Besar to the northeast, with an area of only 18 square kilometers (7 square miles).

Coastal Features

The easternmost part of the coastline is smooth, but the rest has many indentations; the most important of these is the deep natural harbor at the mouth of the Singapore River on the southern coast.

6 INLAND LAKES

Singapore has no significant natural lakes, but it has fourteen artificial bodies of water that were created by the construction of reservoirs.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

Singapore's rivers are all short, including its main river, which has the same name as the island itself. The Singapore River flows into the wide harbor on the island's southeastern coast. Other rivers include the Seletar (at 14 Singapore's kilometers/9 miles, the longest on the island), Jurong, Kalang, Kranji, and Serangoon.

8 DESERTS

There are no deserts in Singapore.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Aside from Bukit Timah Hill, the main island's highest point, Singapore's central hills include Mandai and Panjang. Lower ridges extend northwest-to-southeast in the western and southern parts of the island.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

The highest land on Singapore is a ridge of rugged hills in the center of the island. The highest is Bukit Timah Hill, at 165 meters (545 feet).

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

Singapore has no significant caves or canyons.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

The eastern part of the main island is a low, eroded plateau.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

The Johore Causeway, built in the 1920s, is fewer than 3 kilometers (1 mile) long. It bridges the Johore Strait, connecting Singapore to the Malaysian state of Johore. A second causeway opened in 1999. Land reclamation has added almost 15 square kilometers (6 square miles) to Singapore's total territory since 1966, mostly along the southeast coast, including reclamation on nearby islands.

Fourteen reservoirs have been built on Singapore's rivers for flood control as well as for private and industrial water use. Almost all the reservoirs are located in the center of the island or at the mouths of rivers on the northeastern or western coasts. Among the largest are Seretar and Upper Pierce, both of which are situated in the center of the island.

14 FURTHER READING

Books

Fuller, Barbara. Berlitz: Discover Singapore . Oxford, England: Berlitz Publishing, 1993.

Rowthorn, Chris, et al. Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei . Oakland, CA: Lonely Planet, 1999.

Singapore and Malaysia. Knopf Guides. New York: Knopf, 1996.

Warren, William. Singapore, City of Gardens. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions, 2000.

Web Sites

Lonely Planet: Destination Singapore. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/south_east_asia/singapore (accessed April 15, 2003).

Singapore Tourism Board: North America site. http://www.tourismsingapore.com/ (accessed April 15, 2003).

User Contributions:

Report this comment as inappropriate
Nov 20, 2011 @ 11:23 pm
this website is no good, i didnt get any information from it:(

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA


Singapore forum