Monaco

Official name: Principality of Monaco

Area: 1.9 square kilometers (0.7 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Mont Agel (140 meters/459 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

Time zone: 1 P.M. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 3.18 kilometers (1.98 miles) from east to west; 1.10 kilometers (0.68 miles) from north to south

Land boundaries: 4.4 kilometers (2.7 miles) total boundary length, all with France

Coastline: 4.1 kilometers (2.5 miles)

Territorial sea limits: 22 kilometers (12 nautical miles)

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

An enclave lying entirely within the French department of Alpes-Mari-times, Monaco is the world's second-smallest country; only the Vatican is smaller. The entire principality occupies about three times the area of the Mall in Washington, D.C.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

Monaco has no territories or dependencies.

3 CLIMATE

Monaco's winters are mild, with temperatures rarely falling below freezing; January's average temperature is 8°C (46°F). The summer heat is comfortable because of the cooling breezes from the bordering Mediterranean Sea. The average high temperature in July and August is 26°C (79°F). Sea breezes moderate the summer heat. Monaco has a sunny climate, with only about sixty days of rain per year. On average, the sun shines for seven hours a day. Rainfall averages about 77 centimeters (30 inches) per year.

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

There is little geographic variation in this tiny country, but it is often divided into four regions based on economic activities: Monte Carlo is the northern entertainment district, site of the famous casino. La Condamine is the business district on the western side of the country's central bay. South of the bay, Monaco-Ville, the historic old city and site of the principality's lavish palace, is situated on a rocky projection about 60 meters (200 feet) above sea level. Fontvieille to the southwest is an industrial and port area that was developed on reclaimed land.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

The Mediterranean Sea lies to the east and south of Monaco.

Coastal Features

Monaco's coastline contains several cliffs as well as the Monte Carlo and Larvotto beaches in Monte Carlo. The Port of Monaco is located off the central coast, and the Port of Fontvieille is in the south; the two ports are separated by the small peninsula on which Monaco-Ville is located.

6 INLAND LAKES

There are no lakes in Monaco.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

No rivers flow through Monaco.

8 DESERTS

There are no deserts in Monaco.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Much of Monaco is situated on thickly clustered hills.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

Monaco's terrain includes rugged cliffs overlooking the Mediterranean Sea. The surrounding French countryside is mountainous.

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

There are caves in the rocky limestone cliffs on Monaco's coast.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

There are no plateaus or monoliths in Monaco.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

The Port of Fontvieille is built on land that was reclaimed from the sea between 1966 and 1973. The project enlarged the principality by 22 hectares (54 acres) and involved moving 7.5 million cubic meters (264.8 cubic feet) of rock and earth. The reclaimed land supports not only the port itself but also an industrial zone and retail and tourist facilities.

14 FURTHER READING

Books

Campbell, Siri. Inside Monaco . Glen Ellyn, IL: MCI, 1996.

Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco . New York: Morrow, 1992.

Hopkins, Adams. Essential French Riviera . Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1994.

Web Sites

"Monaco." LonelyPlanet. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/monaco/ (accessed April 24, 2003).

Monte-Carlo Online. http://www.monte-carlo.mc/principalitymonaco/index.html (accessed April 24, 2003).

User Contributions:

Report this comment as inappropriate
May 25, 2011 @ 10:10 am
Hi, how many land reclamation works has been done in the current extention of surface area of Monaco and the corresponding total area measurement, in square km area.

Thank you

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